An Encyclopedia of Japanese History

compiled by Chris Spackman





Copyright Notice



Copyright © 2002-2005 Chris Spackman and contributors

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License.”



Table of Contents

Frontmatter 9

Abe Family (Mikawa) – Azukizaka, Battle of (1564) 11

Baba Family – Buzen Province 41

Chang Tso-lin – Currency 51

Daido Masashige – Dutch Learning 95

Echigo Province – Etō Shinpei 98

Feminism – Fuwa Mitsuharu 102

Gamō Hideyuki – Gyoki 107

Habu Yoshiharu – Hyūga Province 116

Ibaraki Castle – Izu Province 138

Japan Communist Party – Jurakutei Castle 154

Kaei – Kyūshū Campaign 158

Lansing, Robert – Lytton 203

MacArthur, Douglas – Mutsu Province 203

Nabeyama Sadachika – Nunobeyama, Battle of 238

Ōan – Ozu Yasujiro 254

Pacific War – Privy Council 275

(Q: No Entries) 289

Ran – Ryūkyū Province 289

Sado Province – Suzuki Zenkō 294

Tachibana Muneshige – Twenty-One Demands 345

Uchida Ryohei – Uzen Province 372

(V: No entries) 375

Wado Province – Witte, Sergei 375

(X: No entries) 377

Yagyū Munenori – Yūryaku-tennō 377

Zaibatsu – Zeami 386

Chronological List of Emperors 389

Prime Ministers, 1885 to Present 395

Alphabetical List of the Prefectures 399

Provinces and Corresponding Prefectures 402

Chronological List of Nengō 406

List of the Shōgun 415

GNU Free Documentation License 417



List of Tables

Table 1Cabinet Positions Held by Abe Nobuyuki 12

Table 2Abe Nobuyuki's Cabinet 13

Table 3Cabinet Positions Held by Adachi Kenzō 15

Table 4Data on Akita Prefecture 19

Table 5Cabinet Positions Held by Araki Sadao 28

Table 6Cabinet Positions Held by Ashida Hitoshi 31

Table 7Ashida Hitoshi's Cabinet 32

Table 8 i-ro-ha Alphabet, 1-7 Checkerboard Cipher 81

Table 9 Checkerboard Cipher Using Waka Poem 82

Table 10Creating a Pseudo-Random Number from Two Other Numbers 92

Table 11 Portraits on Japanese Bills 94

Table 12 Dates of Use for Japanese Bills 95

Table 13 Cabinet Positions Held by Gotō Shinpei 114

Table 14 Cabinet Positions Held by Gotō Shōjirō 115

Table 15 Cabinet Positions Held by Hamaguchi Osachi 117

Table 16 Hamaguchi Osachi's Cabinet 118

Table 17 Cabinet Positions Held by Hara Kei 119

Table 18 Hara Kei's Cabinet 120

Table 19 Cabinet Positions Held by Hatoyama Ichirō 121

Table 20 Cabinet Positions Held by Hayashi Senjūrō 122

Table 21 Hayashi Senjūrō's Cabinet 122

Table 22 Cabinet Positions Held by Hayashi Tadasu 123

Table 23 Cabinet Positions Held by Hiranuma Kiichirō 127

Table 24Hiranuma Kiichirō's Cabinet 128

Table 25 Cabinet Positions Held by Hirota Kōki 129

Table 26 Hirota Kōki's Cabinet 130

Table 27 Cabinet Positions Held by Inoue Junnosuke 142

Table 28 Cabinet Positions Held by Inoue Kaoru 143

Table 29 Cabinet Positions Held by Inoue Kowashi 143

Table 30 Cabinet Positions Held by Inukai Tsuyoshi 144

Table 31 Inukai Tsuyoshi's Cabinet 144

Table 32Domains in Ise Province 145

Table 33 Cabinet Positions Held by Itagaki Taisuke 147

Table 34 Cabinet Positions Held by Itō Hirobumi 148

Table 35 Itō Hirobumi's First Cabinet 148

Table 36 Itō Hirobumi's Second Cabinet 151

Table 37 Itō Hirobumi's Third Cabinet 151

Table 38Itō Hirobumi's Fourth Cabinet 152

Table 39Cabinet Positions Held by Katō Takaaki 169

Table 40 Katō Takaaki's First Cabinet 169

Table 41Katō Takaaki's Second Cabinet 170

Table 42 Cabinet Positions Held by Katō Tomosaburō 170

Table 43 Katō Tomosaburō's Cabinet 171

Table 44Cabinet Positions Held by Katsura Tarō 172

Table 45 Katsura Tarō's First Cabinet 173

Table 46Katsura Tarō's Second Cabinet 173

Table 47Katsura Tarō's Third Cabinet 174

Table 48 Cabinet Positions Held by Kido Kōichi 177

Table 49Cabinet Positions Held by Kobiyama Naoto 181

Table 50Cabinet Positions Held by Kodama Gentarō 181

Table 51Cabinet Positions Held by Kodama Hideo 182

Table 52Cabinet Positions Held by Koiso Kuniaki 184

Table 53Koiso Kuniaki's Cabinet 185

Table 54Kōke Families 186

Table 55Cabinet Positions Held by Kōno Togama 188

Table 56Cabinet Positions Held by Komura Jūtarō 188

Table 57Cabinet Positions Held by Konoe Fumimaro 189

Table 58Konoe Fumimaro's First Cabinet 190

Table 59Konoe Fumimaro's Second Cabinet 191

Table 60Konoe Fumimaro's Third Cabinet 192

Table 61Cabinet Positions Held by Kuroda Kiyotaka 198

Table 62Kuroda Kiyotaka's Cabinet 198

Table 63Filmography of Kurosawa Akira 201

Table 64Cabinet Positions Held by Kurusu Takeo 201

Table 65Cabinet Positions Held by Machida Chūji 203

Table 66Cabinet Positions Held by Maeda Yonezō 205

Table 67Cabinet Positions Held by Makino Nobuaki 205

Table 68Cabinet Positions Held by Matsuda Masahisa 206

Table 69Cabinet Positions Held by Matsukata Masayoshi 207

Table 70Matsukata Masayoshi's First Cabinet 208

Table 71Matsukata Masayoshi's Second Cabinet 209

Table 72Cabinet Positions Held by Matsumoto Jōji 210

Table 73Cabinet Positions Held by Matsumura Kenzō 210

Table 74 Leaders of the Meiji Restoration 213

Table 75Filmography of Mifune Toshirō 215

Table 76Cabinet Positions Held by Minami Hiroshi 217

Table 77Cabinet Positions Held by Mitsuchi Chūzō 225

Table 78Cabinet Positions Held by Mizuno Rentarō 229

Table 79Cabinet Positions Held by Mochizuke Keisuke 229

Table 80Cabinet Positions Held by Motoda Hajime 232

Table 81Cabinet Positions Held by Murase Naokai 233

Table 82Cabinet Positions Held by Murata Shōzō 233

Table 83Cabinet Positions Held by Mutsu Munemitsu 237

Table 84Cabinet Positions Held by Nagai Ryūtarō 238

Table 85Cabinet Positions Held by Nakahashi Tokugorō 247

Table 86Cabinet Positions Held by Nakajima Chikuhei 247

Table 87Cabinet Positions Held by Narahashi Wataru 248

Table 88Cabinet Positions Held by Nishio Suehiro 252

Table 89Cabinet Positions Held by Noda Uichi 253

Table 90Cabinet Positions Held by Noda Utarō 253

Table 91Cabinet Positions Held by Ogata Taketora 260

Table 92Cabinet Positions Held by Ohara Naoshi 260

Table 93Cabinet Positions Held by Okada Keisuke 262

Table 94Okada Keisuke's Cabinet 262

Table 95Cabinet Positions Held by Okada Ryōhei 263

Table 96Cabinet Positions Held by Okano Keijirō 263

Table 97Cabinet Positions Held by Ōki Enkichi 264

Table 98Cabinet Positions Held by Ōki Takatō 265

Table 99Cabinet Positions Held by Okuda Yoshindo 266

Table 100Cabinet Positions Held by Ōkuma Shigenobu 266

Table 101Ōkuma Shigenobu's First Cabinet 267

Table 102Ōkuma Shigenobu's Second Cabinet 267

Table 103Cabinet Positions Held by Ōura Kanetake 272

Table 104Cabinet Positions Held by Ōyama Iwao 272

Table 105 Notable Hired Foreigners 274

Table 106Cabinet Positions Held by Saigō Tsugumichi 296

Table 107Cabinet Positions Held by Saionji Kinmochi 297

Table 108Saionji Kinmochi's First Cabinet 298

Table 109Saionji Kinmochi's Second Cabinet 299

Table 110Cabinet Positions Held by Saitō Makoto 299

Table 111Saitō Makoto's Cabinet 300

Table 112Cabinet Positions Held by Saitō Takao 301

Table 113Cabinet Positions Held by Sakurauchi Yukio 302

Table 114Cabinet Positions Held by Sasamori Junzō 305

Table 115Cabinet Positions Held by Satō Eisaku 305

Table 116Satō Eisaku's First Cabinet 305

Table 117Satō Eisaku's Second Cabinet 305

Table 118East and West Armies at Sekigahara 308

Table 119Cabinet Positions Held by Sengoku Mitsugu 309

Table 120Cabinet Positions Held by Shibata Kamon 310

Table 121Cabinet Positions Held by Shidehara Kijūrō 311

Table 122Shidehara Kijūrō's Cabinet 312

Table 123Cabinet Positions Held by Shigemitsu Mamoru 313

Table 124Cabinet Positions Held by Shimada Toshio 315

Table 125Cabinet Positions Held by Shiono Suehiko 317

Table 126Shōgunates 319

Table 127Cabinet Positions Held by Sone Arasuke 340

Table 128Cabinet Positions Held by Suematsu Kenchō 341

Table 129Cabinet Positions Held by Sugiyama Gen 342

Table 130Cabinet Positions Held by Suzuki Kantarō 343

Table 131Suzuki Kantarō's Cabinet 344

Table 132Cabinet Positions Held by Suzuki Kisaburō 344

Table 133Cabinet Positions Held by Suzuki Teiichi 345

Table 134Cabinet Positions Held by Suzuki Yoshio 345

Table 135Cabinet Positions Held by Takahashi Korekiyo 347

Table 136Takahashi Korekiyo's Cabinet 347

Table 137Cabinet Positions Held by Takarabe Takeshi 349

Table 138Cabinet Positions Held by Takashima Tomonosuke 349

Table 139Cabinet Positions Held by Takeda Giichi 350

Table 140Cabinet Positions Held by Taketomi Tokitoshi 352

Table 141Cabinet Positions Held by Tanabe Harumichi 353

Table 142Cabinet Positions Held by Tanaka Giichi 353

Table 143Tanaka Giichi's Cabinet 354

Table 144Cabinet Positions Held by Terauchi Masatake 359

Table 145Terauchi Masatake's Cabinet 359

Table 146Yonai Mitsumasa's Cabinet 385

Table 147Cabinet Positions Held by Yoshida Zengo 386

Table 148Chronological List of Emperors 393

Table 149Emperors of the Northern Court 393

Table 150Prime Ministers, 1885 to Present 398

Table 151Alphabetical List of the Prefectures 401

Table 152Provinces and Corresponding Prefectures 405

Table 153Chronological List of Nengō 413

Table 154 List of Nengō of the Northern Court 414

Table 155List of the Kamakura Shōgun 415

Table 156List of the Ashikaga Shōgun 415

Table 157List of the Tokugawa Shōgun 416







Frontmatter

Credits

The following people have contributed to this encyclopedia:

Carl F. Kelley

Seige of Kozuki entry

W. G. Sheftall (sheftall at ia.inf.shizuoka.ac.jp)

Imperial Way Faction entry

February 26th Revolt entry

Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org)

Several pages are included (and possibly modified) from the content available at www.wikipedia.org. These include but are not limited to:

Kofun, Kotoamatsukami, Meiji, Nagasaki, Bombing of, Nagasaki City, Sengoku Period,

Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), Tokugawa Ieyasu, Nengo, the Nengo appendix,

History

This encyclopedia started as a web site back in 1998. As I added more and more pages, the limitations of html for a large project began to show, so in late 2000 I switched everything over to LaTeX. With the 0.3.3 release, the format has again changed – this time to the OpenOffice.org XML-based format.

This work was originally published under the Open Content License but I republished it under the GNU Free Documentation License in March 2001. Please see the copyright section and the GNU License at the back of the book for more details.

About

Please direct questions, bug reports (factual mistakes in the text, for example), or suggestions concerning this work to Chris Spackman (spackman@openhistory.org). The newest version will always be available at www.openhistory.org.

This encyclopedia is continually under development and anyone is welcome to contribute.

Note on Dates (Important! Please READ THIS!!)

Some of the sources from which this encyclopedia is compiled are Japanese and use Japanese dates for events. Unfortunately, the Japanese used a less-than-perfect lunar calendar until the 1870s. As a result, the dates listed for events from more than about 130 years ago can seem misleading when compared with dates for the same event from an American or other `Western' source. So, for example, Bryant (and probably everyone else in America) lists the Battle of Sekigahara as taking place in October while Japanese sources say that it took place in September. In time I hope to have both dates listed, but that is not going to happen soon.

As a convenience, I have converted phrases like “fifth day of the second month” to “5 February''.

Sources

Currently, I have compiled this encyclopedia mostly from:

Janet Hunter's Encyclopedia of Modern History [hunter_1984] for people and events from modern history.

Stephen Turnbull's Samurai Sourcebook [turnbull_1998] for the Sengoku Period and samurai in general.

The Samurai Archives homepage at: http://www.angelfire.com/realm/kitsuno01/index.html A great site with lots of information about samurai and the Sengoku Period.

E. Papinot's Historical and Geographical Dictionary of Japan [papinot_1972] is a bit dated but has wonderfully detailed information on topics that tend to get ignored these days.

Wikipedia: http://www.wikipedia.org : the online, free (as in speech) encyclopedia.

Most if not all of the data for prefecture entries is from Noritaka Yagasaki's Japan: Geographical Perspectives on an Island Nation [yagasaki_1997].

There are several very helpful tables at the back of New Nelson's Kanji Encyclopedia, which I have used to double and triple check a lot of the data about nengo and emperors.

This is not a comprehensive list.

Changes

0.3.3 to 0.3.4
Changed:

Hōgen (added Japanese), Chronological List of Nengō (added Japanese), Yonai Mitsumasa (added cabinet), Hayashi Yūzō(fixed name, added cabinet info), fixed some entries that were out of alphabetical order, fixed some errors in the chart of prefectures. Added and modified the Ishida Mitsunari, Miyamoto Musashi, and the Kurosawa Akira entries from wikipedia. Added some material from the Wikipedia article on Sekigahara, Battle of, added and modified slightly the entry on the Shimabara Rebellion from wikipedia. Added some Wikipedia info for Minamoto Yoriie, Ashikaga Yoshiaki, Ashikaga Shōgunate, Nagato Province, Kagoshima City, Perry, Matthew Calbraith, Minamoto Yoshitsune, Oda Nobunaga, Sanada Nobuyuki, Sanada Masayuki, Sanada Yukimura, Satsuma Province, Sengoku Period, Sonnō-Jōi, dropped the “no” from the entry names for Fujiwara Kaneie and Fujiwara Michinaga to make them more consistent with the rest of the Fujiwaras. Added some stuff from wikipedia to: Ankan-tennō, Ashigaru, Azukizaka, Battle of (1564), Bakamatsu.

New:

Hōgen Insurrection, Fujiwara Yorinaga, Yoshida Zengo, everything alphabetically from Kimmei-tennō to Kizugawa, Battle of was accidently dropped from 0.3.3 and has been reinserted. Added Jōō (1222). Added Muromachi Period, Azuchi-Momoyama Period, Boshin War, Ran, Yagyū Munenori, Takuan, (from Wikipedia),

Added Kagoshima City, Kumamoto City, Nara City, Toyama City, Bunchū (main entry and entry in Chronological List of Nengō). Added entries for people who touch on Miyamoto Musashi, including Sasaki Ganryū, Yoshikawa Eiji, Mifune Toshirō, also Heian Period, Kamakura Period, Meiji Restoration, Comfort Women, Recreation and Amusement Association, (all based on the articles at Wikipedia). Sankin-Kōtai, Abolition of the Domain, Muromachi Period, Sakai Tadamasa, Comfort Women, Recreation and Amusement Association, added a table of emperors of the Northern Court. Added entries for those emperors.

Takamine Jokichi, Oyatoi Gaikokujin, Pacific War, Peace Preservation Law, Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), (all wikipedia)

Abe Family (Mikawa) – Azukizaka, Battle of (1564)

Abe Family (Mikawa)

Descended from Ōhiko (pg 260), a son of Kōgen-tennō (pg 184).

Abe Masakatsu Abe Masatsugu

Abe Family (Mutsu)

Abe Family (Suruga)

Abe Hirafu

Abe Hirafu was a governor of Koshi. He fought against the aboriginal inhabitants of Japan (called, at that time, ebisu, which basically just means 'barbarian'). This was in 658. Three years later, in 661, he led an expedition into Korea to help Kudara, a Japanese colony / protectorate / ally on the Korean peninsula.

Note that the early dates on this info means that everything is suspect (more than usual) and should be double and triple checked.

Abe Hirafu might be the anscestor of one or more of the Abe clans, as well as the Ando and Akita clans.

Abe Iso

Lived 1865 to 1949

Christian Socialist from Fukuoka Prefecture. Studied at Doshisha University and abroad. Became a Unitarian preacher. Taught at Tokyo College from 1899.

Active in the socialist movement.

1900 --- became president of the Socialist Society

1901 --- one of the founders of Shakaiminshuto

1924 --- became president of the Japan Fabian Society

1928 --- elected to the Diet

1932 --- chairman of Shakaitaishuto

Withdrew from politics in 1940

Abekawa River

A river which starts in Suruga and whose mouth is near Shizuoka.

Abe Masakatsu

Lived 1541 to 1600

Masakatsu was an important member of the Abe clan of Mikawa. He served Tokugawa Ieyasu until his (Masakatsu's) death in 1600 (just coincidence, or did he die at Sekigahara?). In 1590, Ieyasu gave him Ichihara (in Izu), worth 5,000 koku.

Abe Masatsugu

Lived 1569 to 1647

Abe Masatsugu was the eldest son of Masakatsu. After Sekigahara, Tokugawa Ieyasu promoted him to daimyō status.

Abe Muneto

Abe Nakamaro

Lived 701 to 770

Abe Nobuyuki

Lived 1875 to 1953

Soldier and Politician from Ishikawa Prefecture. Put on reserve list with rank of general in 1936.

Prime Minister from 30 Aug. 1939. Took over from Hiranuma Kiichirō (pg. 127) and was replaced by Yonai Mitsumasa (pg. 384) in January of 1940.

Joined the House of Peers in 1942.

President of the Imperial Rule Assistance Political Association (pg. 141).

Governor of Korea from July 1944.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Hamaguchi

Hanretsu

Jun 16, 1930

Dec 10, 1930

Hamaguchi

War

Jun 16, 1930

Dec 10, 1930

Abe

Foreign Affairs

Aug 30, 1939

??

Abe

Prime Minister

Aug 30, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Table 1Cabinet Positions Held by Abe Nobuyuki

Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Godō Takuo

Agriculture & Forestry

Aug 30, 1939

Oct 16, 1939

Sakai Tadamasa

Agriculture & Forestry

Oct 16, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Endō Ryūsaku

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Aug 30, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Karasawa Toshiki

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Aug 30, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Kanemitsu Tsuneo

Colonization

Aug 30, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Godō Takuo

Commerce & Industry

Aug 30, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Nagai Ryūtarō

Communications

Aug 30, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Kawarada Kakichi

Education

Aug 30, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Aoki Kazuo

Finance

Aug 30, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Abe Nobuyuki

Foreign Affairs

Aug 30, 1939

XXX

Nomura Kichisaburō

Foreign Affairs

XXX

Jan 16, 1940

Ohara Naoshi

Home Affairs

Aug 30, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Miyagi Chōgorō

Justice

Aug 30, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Yoshida Zengo

Navy

Aug 30, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Abe Nobuyuki

Prime Minister

Aug 30, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Nagai Ryūtarō

Railways

Aug 30, 1939

Nov 29, 1939

Nagata Hidejirō

Railways

Nov 29, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Hata Shunroku

War

Aug 30, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Ohara Naoshi

Welfare

Aug 30, 1939

Nov 29, 1939

Akita Kiyoshi

Welfare

Nov 29, 1939

Jan 16, 1940

Table 2Abe Nobuyuki's Cabinet

Abeno Plain

A plain in Settsu. Abeno was the scene of several battles during the Warring States period.

Abe Sadato

Lived 1019 to 1062

Abe Seimei

Died 1005.

Abe Seimei was a famous astronomer.

Abe Yoritoki

Abolition of the Domain

Japanese: 廃藩置県, (Haihan-chiken)

Starting in July of 1871, the system of independent han (feudal domains) was abolished and a new system of semi-independent regional governments was introduced.

In an attempt to wipe out feudalism in Japan, the new Meiji government abolished hundreds of feudal domains or han. In their place it established a new local government scheme based on geographically defined prefectures. This system is still in effect today, although the number and boundaries of the prefectures has changed over time.

The han were ruled by the daimyō. While theoretically owing allegiance to both the Shōgun and the Emperor, the daimyō were for the most part independent in their han. However, over the years of since the establishment of the Tokugawa Shōgunate, most domain had run up serious debts (due in part to the construction and sankin kotai demands of the Tokugawa rulers) and this one carrot the new Meiji leaders used to entice the daimyō to willing “return” their domains to the Emperor. In exchange for recognising the Emperor's legal control of their land, the central government would take on the domain's debt and would often appoint the ex-daimyō governor of the province (ken). It wasn't a bad deal but after the daimyō of Satsuma and Chōshū proved their loyalty to the Emperor by returning their domains, the smaller daimyō didn't really have much choice.

Suggested Reading

See Also

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abolition_of_the_Han_system

Abukumagawa River

aka Akurigawa.

A river with source at Asahi-san and mouth near Iwanuma.

Abutsu

aka Abutsu-ni, aka Hokurin-zenni

Achi no Omi

Adachi Family

A family of samurai who were descended from Fujiwara Yamakage (pg XXX). They are presented here because of their successes during the Minamoto---Taira wars and their subsequent affiliation with the Hōjō Family (pg XXX).

Adachi Kagemori

Died 1248

A warrior of the Adachi family, Kagemori was the son of Morinaga. He served with Minamoto Yoriie but became a monk when Minamoto Sanetomo died. This did not stop him from joining the Hōjō Family for the Shōkyū War, however.

Hōjō Tsunetoki and Hōjō Tokiyori were his grandsons.

See Also

Minamoto Sanetomo (pg XXX), Minamoto Yoriie (pg XXX), Hōjō Family (pg XXX), Shōkyū War (pg XXX), Hōjō Tsunetoki (pg XXX), Hōjō Tokiyori (pg XXX)

Adachi Kenzō

Lived 1864 to 1948.

Politician from Kumamoto.

Involved in the murder of the Korean queen in 1895.

Founding member of the Kumamoto National Party.

Elected to the House of Representatives in 1902.

Active in the Rikken Doshikai, Kenseikai, and Minseito.

Formed and was president of the Kokumin Domei in 1932.

Cabinet Posts

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Katō

Communications

May 31, 1925

Aug 2, 1925

2nd Katō

Communications

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

1st Wakatsuki

Communications

Jan 30, 1926

Apr 20, 1927

1st Wakatsuki

Home Affairs

Dec 16, 1926

Mar 15, 1927

Hamaguchi

Home Affairs

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

2nd Wakatsuki

Home Affairs

Apr 14, 1931

Dec 13, 1931

Table 3Cabinet Positions Held by Adachi Kenzō

See Also

Kumamoto National Party (pg XXX), Rikken Doshikai (pg XXX), Kenseikai (pg XXX), Minseito (pg XXX), Kokumin Domei (pg XXX).

Adachi Morinaga

Died 1200

Adachi Morinaga was a warrior who fought for Minamoto Yoritomo (pg XXX) against the Taira (pg XXX).

After the wars, he became a monk and took the name Rensai.

Adachi Yasumori

Died 1285

Adachi Yoshikage

Died 1255.

Aichi Prefecture

Area: 5,150 km2 (1995)

Capital: Nagoya

Population: 6,770,000 (1996)

Aikoku Kōtō

Aizawa Seishi

Lived 1782 to 1863

Aizu-han

Ajiki

Akabashi Moritoki

Died 1333

Akagawa Fusanobu

Akagawa Motoyasu

Son of Akagawa Fusanobu.

Mōri retainer.

Akai Naomasa

Akamatsu Family

Akamatsu Mitsusuke

Lived 1381 to 1441

Akamatsu Norifusa

Akamatsu Norimura

Lived 1277 to 1350

Akamatsu Norisuke

Lived 1312 to 1371

Akamatsu Soshu

Lived 1721 to 1801

Akamatsu Suefusa

Akamatsu Yoshinori

Lived 1358 to 1427

Akamatsu Yoshisuke

Akashi Morishige

Died 1618.

Baptised a Christian in 1596.

Was a vassal of Ukita Hideie, the daimyō of Okayama.

Morishige fought against Tokugawa Ieyasu at Sekigahara. He surrendered to Kuroda Nagamasa.

Later, he fought for the Toyotomi at Ōsaka Castle. Somehow managed to escape the fall of the castle.

See Also

Ukita Hideie (pg XX), Sekigahara, Battle of (pg XX), Kuroda Nagamasa (pg XX), Toyotomi Family (pg XX), Ōsaka, Siege of (pg XX)

Akaza Naoyasu

aka Akaza Kyūbei.

Died 1606.

One of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's retainers.

Akaza Naoyasu fought at Sekigahara under Ōtani Yoshitsugu, but switched to the Eastern side during the battle.

Later Naoyasa became a retainer of Maeda Toshinaga.

Akazome Emon

Akechi Castle

Akechi Family

Akechi Mitsuharu

aka Mitsutoshi

Akechi Mitsuhide's cousin. Mitsuharu was present for his cousin's coup, but missed the Battle of Yamazaki.

He battled Hori Hidemasa at Uchidehama, lost and fled. He committed hari-kiri and supposedly wrote a poem with his own blood before dieing.

See Also

Akechi Mitsuhide (pg XX), Yamazaki, Battle of (pg XX), Hori Hidemasa (pg XX), Uchidehama, Battle of (pg XX)

Akechi Mitsuhide

Lived 1526 to 1582

Akechi Mitsuhide was a general under, and the assassin of, Oda Nobunada.

When they found out about the assassination, both Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu rushed to be the first to avenge Nobunaga and take his place. Hideyoshi got to Mitsuhide first.

Mitsuhide began serving Oda Nobunaga in 1566 and recieved Sakamoto (in Ōmi, 100,000 koku) in 1571.

In 1579, he captured Yakami Castle from Hatano Hideharu by taking Hideharu's mother hostage. This accomplished Mitsuhide's goal but unfortunately, Nobunaga had the woman executed (crucified?). Naturally this did not make the Hatano family happy and a short while later several of Hideharu's (ex-?) retainers murdered Akechi Mitsuhide's mother!

Mitsuhide blamed Nobunaga for his mother's death and the attack at Honnōji in 1582 was his revenge.

Mitsuhide survived for 13 days, until he was defeated by Hideyoshi at the Battle of Yamazaki.

See Also

Oda Nobunaga (pg XX), Honnōji, Seige of (pg XX), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (pg XX), Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg XX), Hatano Hideharu (pg XX), Akechi Mitsuharu (pg XX), Yamazaki, Battle of (pg XX), Uchidehama, Battle of (pg XX)

Akechi Mitsukuni

Akimoto Family

Akimoto Nagatomo

Died 1628

Akimoto Takatomo

Lived 1647 to 1714.

Akimoto Yasutomo

Lived 1580 to 1642.

Aki Province

A province in the Western part of Honshū (pg. ), part of what is today Hiroshima Prefecture (pg. ).

Akita Castle

Akita City

The capital of Akita Prefecture (pg 19).

Akita Family

Akita Kiyoshi

Welfare Minister in Abe Nobuyuki's cabinet, from 29 November 1939 to 16 January 1940

Akita Prefecture

Area:

11,612 km2 (1995)

Capital:

Akita City (pg. 19)

Population:

1,220,000 (1996)

Table 4Data on Akita Prefecture

The old Ugo Province (pg. 374) is today Akita Prefecture.

Akita Sanesue

died 1659

Sanesue served Tokugawa Ieyasu and received Shishido (in Hitachi, 50,000 koku) in 1602.

Akita Toshisue

dates currently unknown

Toshisue was the son of Sanesue. He also served the Tokugawa and received Miharu (in Mitsu, 50,000 koku) in 1645.

Akiyama Nobutomo

dates currently unknown

Nobutomo was a famous general in service of the Takeda family.

Akizuki Castle

Akizuki Tanenaga

Tanenaga served under Kuroda Nagamasa during the Korean campaign. He sided with Ishida Mitsunari at the battle of Sekigahara but managed to keep his fief (which was?) after the battle.

See Also

Kuroda Nagamasa, Korea, Invasion of Ishida Mitsunari, Sekigahara, Battle of

Akizuki Tanezane

Tanezane lost to the Ōtomo (the who, what, when, where, and why is still to be researched). Sometime after that he joined the Shimazu (as an ally or a vassal?) and fought with them against Hideyoshi in Kyūshū.

After Sekigahara, he was transfered to Takanabe (in Hyūga, 20,000 koku).

Amakazu Kagemochi

Kagemochi was a famous general for the Uesugi family. Among other things, he fought at the Fourth Battle of Kawanakajima (1561).

Amako Family

A samurai family that fought the Mōri family. They mostly lost. The Mōri had been one of their vassals.

See Also

Mōri Family (pg XXX)

Amako Haruhisa

Lived 1514 to 1562.

Fought against Ōuchi Yoshitaka.

Fought against Mōri Motonari.

Mostly a failure (he lost a lot of battles and a lot of territory) but regained some ground after Sue Harukata killed Ōuchi Yoshitaka.

See Also

Ōuchi Yoshitaka, Mōri Motonari, Sue Harukata

Amako Katsuhisa

dates currently unknown

Lost to someone at Nunobeyama (which is where?) in 1570.

Lost to Mōri Terumoto in 1571 (where? what battle?) and fled to the island of Oki.

Later returned from Oki and captured Tajima and Inaba provinces. Defended Kozuki castle for Hideyoshi against the Mōri.

Katsuhisa was attacked by Kobayakawa Takakage and Kikkawa Motoharu (at Kozuki castle?), was defeated and committed suicide.

See Also

Nunobeyama, Battle of, Mōri Terumoto, Tajima Province, Inaba Province, Kōzuki, Seige of, Kobayakawa Takakage, Kikkawa Motoharu

Amako Kunihisa

Lived 1492 to 1554

Kunihisa was the son of Tsunehisa.

Amako Okihisa

Died 1534

Okihisa was the son of Tsunehisa.

Amako Tsunehisa

Lived 1458 to 1541

Fought against Ōuchi Yoshioka

Mōri Motonari was one of his retainers

Amako Yoshihisa

Yoshihisa was the son of Amako Katsuhisa (pg XXX). He continued the family fight against the Mōri.

While besieged in Toda Castle, Yoshihisa had a retainer, Moriyama Hisakane executed. This caused most of his remaining men to desert. With no hope of holding the castle, Yoshihisa fled and became a monk.

Amakusa Shirō

aka Masuda Tokisada.

A leader of the Shimabara Rebellion, Shirō led the defence of Hara Castle and died when it fell.

See Also

Shimabara Rebellion, Hara Castle, Hara, Seige of

Amano Takashige

Lived 1503 to 1584.

Amano Yasukage

Lived 1537 to 1637.

Amari Nobuyasu

Amari Toriyasu

Died 1548

Ama shōgun

“Ama shōgun” refers to Hōjō Masako, who was the wife of Minamoto Yoritomo, and the power behind the Kamakura shōgunate after his death. She became a nun in 1199. Ama shōgun roughly means the “Nun shōgun.”

See Also

Hōjō Masako (pg. X), Minamoto Yoritomo (pg. X), Kamakura Shōgunate (pg. X),

Ama

Ama is a term used to refer to nuns. In English it would be something like “nun” or “sister.”

American Black Chamber

“Black Chamber” was the name used in Europe for the government section involved in codebreaking and illicit reading of private (especially diplomatic) communications. The American govenment did not set up it's own black chamber until after World War I.

The American Black Chamber (actually the Cipher Bureau) was a group of codebreakers working for the United States government (with funding from the Army and the State Department) between July 1917 and October 1929, headed by Herbert O. Yardley (pg 379). Cracking Japanese codes was a priority. Kahn ([kahn_2004], pg 62) states:

The most important target was Japan. Its belligerence toward China jeopardized America's Open Door policy. Its emigrants exacerbated American racism. Its naval growth menaced American power in the western Pacific. Its commercial expansion threatened American dominance of Far Eastern markets.

After close to a year, Yardley and his staff finally managed to break the Japanese codes and were still reading Japanese diplomatic traffic when Washington hosted the Washington Naval Conference in 1921. The information the the Cipher Bureau provided the American delegation was instrumental in getting the Japanese side to agree to a 10:6 ratio instead of the 10:7 ratio the Japanese wanted. This was the hight of Yardley's cryptanalytic career.

The Japanese Navy was not happy with the treaty and when several years later Yardley described the whole incident in his book The American Black Chamber (pg. 23), the Japanese were not amused.

Despite their success at the Washington Conference, the truth of the matter is that Yardley and his codebreakers were not as good as Yardley believed them to be. Japanese government codes were rediculously weak in the early 1920s. The real difficulty probably lay in the Japanese language, not the Japanese codes – for several months after its founding, the American Black Chamber had no one with a good command of Japanese. British codebreakers at the time considered Japanese codes hardly worth the name.

Unfortunately, for the men and women of the Cipher Bureau the flow of diplomatic telegrams dried up as companies became less willing to break the law to help the government. In Washington, William Friedman was actively exploring cryptographic frontiers for the Army – the Cipher Bureau was becoming irrelevant. However, it was moral indignation that finally doomed the bureau. Henry L. Stimpson was Secretary of State under President Hoover. When he found out about the Cipher Bureau, he was furious and withdrew funding, summing up his argument with “Gentlemen do not read each other's mail.”

The Cipher Bureau closed its doors for good on 31 October 1929 – just two days after the stock market crashed and the Great Depression began.

Sources and Suggested Reading

The American Black Chamber by Herbert O. Yardley, [yardley_1931]

The Codebreakers by David Kahn [kahn_1996]

Angō Kaidoku Nyūmon by Toshio Takagawa, [takagawa_2003]

The Reader of Gentlemen's Mail by David Kahn, [kahn_2004]

See Also

American Black Chamber, The (pg 23), Five-Powers Treaty (pg 102), Washington Naval Conference (pg 376), Yardley, Herbert O. (pg 379),

American Black Chamber, The

A book by Herbert O. Yardley (pg 379), published in 1931, dealing with American efforts to read the communications of other countries. A large part of it is devoted to describing how Yardley and his codebreakers managed to read Japanese government codes and the advantage this gave to the American side at the Washington Naval Conference.

Sources and Suggested Reading

The American Black Chamber by Herbert O. Yardley, [yardley_1931]

The Codebreakers by David Kahn [kahn_1996]

Angō Kaidoku Nyūmon by Toshio Takagawa, [takagawa_2003]

The Reader of Gentlemen's Mail by David Kahn, [kahn_2004]

See Also

American Black Chamber (pg 22), Kowalewski, Jan (pg 194), Yardley, Herbert O. (pg 379), Washington Naval Conference (pg 376)

Anarchism

Kōtoku Shūsui led the anarchist movement until his death in 1911. It continued under Ōsugi Sakae until his murder in 1923. Both men were anarcho-syndicalists and advocated direct action by workers.

Anarchists were at odds with other socialist groups. With the success of the Russian Revolution and the death of Ōsugi, communist groups took control of the labor unions away from the anarcho-syndicalists.

See Also

Ōsugi Sakae (pg 270), Kōtoku Shūsui (pg. 194), Red Flag Incident (pg. 291),

Anayama Nobukimi

Lived 1541 to 1582.

aka Baisetsu Nobukimi.

Ando Chikasue

Ando Morinari

Ando Shigenaga

Ando Shigenobu

Lived 1558 to 1622

Anegakoji Family

Anegakoji Koretsuna

Lived 1540 to 1587

Anegakoji Yoshiyori

Died 1571

Anegawa, Battle of

Took place in 1570.

Oda Nobunaga, with Tokugawa Ieyasu and Inaba Ittetsu, fought the combined forces of Asai Nagamasa and Asakura Yoshikage. Tokugawa forces engaged the Asakura while Oda forces dealt with the Asai.

The Tokugawa forces finished off the Asakura and then turned and hit the Asai's right flank. Inaba had been held in reserve, came forward and hit the Asai left flank.

See Also

Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg. X), Inaba Ittetsu (pg. X), Asai Nagamasa (pg. X), Asakura Yoshikage (pg. X)

An'ei

Nengō: 1772--1780

Angen

Nengō: 1175--1176

Ankan-tennō

Japanese: 安閑天皇

The 27th Emperor of Japan.

Reigned 531 to 535.

The Emperor Ankan was the 27th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. No firm dates can be assigned to this emperor or to his reign, but he is believed to have ruled the country during the early 6th century CE.

According to the Kojiki, Ankan was the elder son of the Emperor Keitai. Ankan became emperor at age 66 and died four years later. No significant events were recorded during his reign.

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Ankan_of_Japan

Ankokuji Ekei

Died 1600.

Ankō-tennō

The 20th Emperor of Japan.

Reigned from 453 to 456.

Anna

Nengō: 968--969.

Annei-tennō

The 3rd Emperor of Japan.

Reigned 549 to 511 B.C.

Ansei Purge

A purge, in 1858--1859, of over 100 people from the bakufu, various han, and the Imperial court. Eight of those `purged' were also executed. It was carried out by Ii Naosuke in an effort to quiet opposition to his handling of the question of shōgunal succession and the signing of the U.S.-Japan Treaty of Amity and Commerce.

(Todo: Add more details on the succession dispute and the people who were purged.)

See Also

Ii Naosuke (pg. X), U.S.-Japan Treaty of Amity and Commerce (pg. X),

Ansei

Nengō: 1854--1859

Ansei Treaties

See U.S.-Japan Treaty of Amity and Commerce on page XREF

Antei

Nengō: 1227--1228

Antoku-tennō

The 81st emperor of Japan.

Reigned from 1180 to 1183.

There were two nengō during his reign, Yōwa (pg XREF) which lasted from 1181 to 1182 and Juei (pg XREF), from 1182 to 1183.

Anwa

Nengō: 968--969

Aoki Kazuo

Finance Minister in Abe Nobuyuki's cabinet, from 30 August 1939 to 16January 1940.

Aoki Shigekane

Aomori City

The capital of Aomori Prefecture.

Aomori Prefecture

Area: 9,605 km2 (1995)

Capital: Aomori

Population: 1,510,000 (1996)

Aoyama Tadanari

Aoyama Yukinari

Arahata Kanson

Lived 1887 to 1981

aka Arahata Katsuzo

Mr. Arahata participated in many of the socialist movements in his career. He started as a socialist, became an syndico-anarchist and eventually a communist and ended up serving in the Diet as a representative of the postwar Japan Socialist Party.

Arahata was from Yokohama.

He joined the Heiminsha in 1904 and was among those arrested for the Red Flag Incident of 1908.

Arahata published Kindai Shiso with Osugi Sakae.

He was member of the first Central Committee of the Japan Communist Party.

Belonged to the Rono Faction.

He was on the Central Executive Committee of the Japan Socialist Party from 1946 to 1948.

Served in the Diet from 1946 to 1949 and spent his time after that writing.

See Also

Heiminsha (pg. X), Red Flag Incident (pg. X), Kindai Shiso (pg. X), Ōsugi Sakae (pg. X), Japan Communist Party (pg. X), Rono Faction (pg. X), Japan Socialist Party (pg. X), Socialism (pg. X), Anarchism (pg. X),

Araki Murashige

Araki Sadao

Born 26 May 1877 to 2 Nov. 1966.

Soldier.

Originally from Tokyo.

Sadao was a leading member of the “Imperial Way Faction” (Kodoha). He was put on the reserve list as a result of the February 26 Uprising.

Minister of Education from 1938 to 1939.

He was tried as a “Class A” war criminal and sentenced to life.

Released from prison in 1955 for health reasons.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Inukai

War

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Saitō

War

May 26, 1932

Jan 23, 1934

1st Konoe

Education

May 26, 1938

Jan 5, 1939

Hiranuma

Education

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Table 5Cabinet Positions Held by Araki Sadao

See Also

February 26 Revolt (pg. X), Imperial Way Faction (pg. X), War Crimes, Class A (pg. X),

Arima Harunobu

Possibly born in 1561. Died on 6 May 1612.

Arima Naozumi

Arima Tadayori

Arima Toyouji

Lived 1570 to 1642.

Arima Yoshisada

Lived 1521 to 1576.

Arquebus

Asahina Yasutomo

Asai Family

Asai Sukemasa --> Hisamasa --> Nagamasa

Asai Hisamasa

Lived 1524 to 1673.

The son of Asai Sukemasa. Lost to the Sasaki and retired in favor of his son Nagamasa.

Asai Nagamasa

Lived 1545 to 28 Aug. 1573.

Son of Asai Hisamasa, from whom he took over in (year??). Nagamasa successfully battled both Rokkaku Yoshitaka and Saitō Tatsuoki.

Married Oda Nobunaga's sister but later joined the Asakura family and the monks of Mt. Hiei against Nobunaga. Nagamasa was defeated by Oda and Tokugawa Ieyasu at the battle of Anegawa in 1570.

In 1573, Oda laid siege to Nagamasa's castle at Odani. Unfortunately for Nagamasa, he was there at the time. He committed suicide and in exchange, Oda spared Nagamasa's family (which of course included his---Nobunaga's---own sister).

Three of Nagamasa's daughters are famous for marrying famous men.

See Also

Asai Hisamasa (pg. X), Rokkaku Yoshitaka (pg. X), Saitō Tatsuoki (pg. X), Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg. X), Odani, Seige of (pg. X), Asakura Family (pg. X), Anegawa, Battle of (pg. X),

Asai Sukemasa

Lived 1495 to 1546.

Father of Asai Hisamasa. Built Odani Castle. Fought the Sasaki family.

Asakura Family

Asakura Hirokage

Asakura Kageakira

Lived 1529 to 1574.

Asakura Kagetake

Asakura Nobumasa

Lived 1583 to 1637.

Asakura Norikage

Lived 1474 to 1552.

Asakura Sadakage

Lived 1473 to 1512.

Asakura Takakage

Lived 1493 to 1546.

Asakura Toshikage

Died 1475?

Lived 1428 to 1481?

Asakura Yoshikage

Lived 24 Sept. 1533 to 20 Aug. 1573.

Asano Family

Asano Nagaakira

Lived 1586 to 1632.

Asano Nagamasa

Lived 1546 to 1610.

Asano Naganori

Lived 1667 to 1701.

Asano Nagatsune

Died 1719.

Asano Shoichirō

Lived 1848 to 1930

Businessman. From a samurai family in the Toyama region. Purchased Fukagawa Cement Works from the government in 1884, with help from Shibusawa Eiichi. Diversified his business interests, which eventually became a minor zaibatsu. Without a bank, it remained minor.

See Also

Fukagawa Cement Works (pg. X), Shibusawa Eiichi (pg. X), Zaibatsu (pg. X)

Asano Yukinaga

Lived 1576 to 1613.

Asari Umanosuke

Ashida Hitoshi

Lived 1887 to 1959.

Was Prime Minister from 10 March 1948 to 15 October 1948. He replaced Katayama Tetsu and was replaced by Yoshida Shigeru.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Shidehara

Welfare

Oct 9, 1945

May 22, 1946

Katayama

Foreign Affairs

Jun 1, 1947

Mar 10, 1948

Ashida

Foreign Affairs

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Ashida Hitoshi

Prime Minister

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Table 6Cabinet Positions Held by Ashida Hitoshi

Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Ashida Hitoshi

Prime Minister

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Nagae Kazuo

Agriculture & Forestry

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Suzuki Yoshio

Attorney General

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Tomabechi Gizō

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Mizutani Chōzaburō

Commerce & Industry

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Tomoyoshi Eiji

Communications

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Hitotsumatsu Sadayoshi

Construction

Jul 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Morito Tatsuo (sp?)

Education

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Kitamura Tokutarō

Finance

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Ashida Hitoshi

Foreign Affairs

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Katō Kanjū

Labor

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Nomizo Masaru

State: Chairman of the Local Finance Committee

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Funada Kyōji

State: Director of Administrative Management Agency

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Kurusu Takeo

State: Director of Central Economic Investigation Agency

Aug 1, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Kurusu Takeo

State: Director of Economic Stabilization Board & Director of Price Board

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Funada Kyōji

State: Director of Reparations Agency

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Hitotsumatsu Sadayoshi

State: President of Construction Board

Mar 10, 1948

Jul 9, 1948

Nishio Suehiro

State: Without Portfolio

Mar 10, 1948

Jul 6, 1948

Tomabechi Gizō

State: Without Portfolio

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Okada Seiichi

Transport

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Takeda Giichi

Welfare

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Table 7Ashida Hitoshi's Cabinet

See Also

Katayama Tetsu (pg. X), Yoshida Shigeru (pg. X)

Ashigaru

Japanese: 足軽

Ashigaru were foot-soldiers in medieval Japan.

Their root is believed to be that of shimobe (下部), who served by the side of government officials during Heian period. Ashigaru (literally “light-foot”, but the word most likely stems from “light armored”) were the lowest-class warriors, either the low-class buke (noble) or commoners who had joined or been impressed to the daimyo's army.

The ashigaru were foot soldiers—the cavalry was the territory of the samurai. They might have been armed with katana or just with spears (yari) unless they served as handlers of catapults. In the 1500s, they were also armed with arquebuses. As battles became more complex and forces larger, ashigaru were rigorously trained so that they would hold their ranks in the face of enemy fire.

Ashigaru armor consisted of conical hats (jingasa) made of lacquered hardened leather, breastplates and occasionally greaves protecting the legs. Some also donned small banners on their back during battle for identification purposes, called sashimono. They needed to bring provisions for themselves until reaching local gathering points and from this point on, were provided with provisions from the daimyo's warehouses.

At first the ashigaru were mercenaries or adventurers who were paid only in loot, but eventually some of them became part of local armies as retained warriors. Those who were given control of ashigaru were called ashigarugashira (足軽頭), (literally "ashigaru head"), and were provided with an annual stipend of 200 to 500 koku.

In the Sengoku period some of them rose to greater prominence. The most famous of these was Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who also raised many of his warrior followers to samurai status. Yamauchi Katsutoyo was one of these. He started as an ashigaru and was made a samurai and later became a daimyo.

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashigaru

Ashikaga Chachamaru

Died 1490.

Ashikaga Masatomo

Lived 12 July 1435 to 5 April 1491.

Ashikaga Shōgunate

Japanese: 足利幕府 (Ashikaga Bakufu)

Lasted from 1338 to 1573

The Ashikaga Shōgunate was founded by Ashikaga Takauji in 1338. It lasted in theory until 1573 although in reality the Shōgun had lost control of most of the country long before that.

This period is also known as the Muromachi period and gets its name from the Muromachi area of Kyōto where the third shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu established his residence.

In part because the founder of the Ashikaga shōgunate, Ashikaga Takauji, did so by siding with the Emperor against the previous Kamakura Shōgunate, the Ashikaga shared more of the governmental authority with the Imperial government than the Kamakura had. However, most of the regional power still remained with the provincial daimyō, and the military power of the shōgunate depended largely on their loyalty to the Ashikaga. As the daimyō increasingly feuded among themselves in the pursuit of power, that loyalty grew increasingly strained, until it erupted into open warfare in the late Muromachi period, also known as the Sengoku Period.

The Ashikaga shōgunate was destroyed in 1573 when Oda Nobunaga drove the 15th and last Ashikaga shōgun Yoshiaki out of Kyōto. Afterwards, Yoshiaki sought and received protection from the Mōri Family in western Japan. The Ashikaga family still exists today.

There is a list of the Ashikaga Shōgun on page 415.

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashikaga_shogunate



See Also

Ashikaga Takauji (pg. X), Ashikaga Yoshiaki (pg. X), Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), List of Ashigaka Shōgun (pg. X),

Ashikaga Tadayoshi

Lived 1306 to 26 Feb. 1352.

Ashikaga Takauji

The 1st Ashikaga shōgun.

Lived 1305 to 30 April 1358.

Ruled 11 Aug. 1338 to 30 April 1358.

Son of Ashikaga Sadauji.

Fought in the Genkō War (1331--1333).

Turned against the Hōjō and took Rokuhara (who, what, and where?). For which he was granted Musashi, Shimōsa, Hitachi.

Defeated Hōjō Tokiyuki and took Kamakura. Declared himself shōgun. Lost to Nitta Yoshisada in Mikawa and Suruga.

Beat someone in the mountains in Hakone which helped him rally other daimyō to his cause. Later took Kyōto. Lost Kyōto to Kitabatake Akiie, Nitta Yoshisada, and Kusunoki Masashige (among others). Lost again near Hyōgo and fled to Kyūshū.

Defeated Kikuchi Taketoshi at Tatara-hama in Chikuzen. Returned to Honshū and defeated Nitta and Kusunoki at Minato-gawa.

Entered Kyōto, deposed Go-Daigo and installed Kōmyō as Emperor. Go-Daigo fled and established the southern court. Takauji spent the rest of his life fighting against samurai loyal to the southern emperor.

Ashikaga Takauji established the Ashigaka shōgunate, which lasted, in theory, until 1573. In practice, the Ashikaga shōgun lost much of their power long before then.

The period of Ashikaga rule is also known as the Muromachi period.

Ashikaga Yoshiakira

Lived 18 June 1330 to 7 Dec. 1367.

Ruled 8 Dec. 1358 to 7 Dec. 1367.

The 2nd Ashikaga shōgun.

Ashikaga Yoshiaki

Japanese: 足利義昭

Lived 3 Nov. 1537 to 28 Aug. 1597.

Ruled 18 Oct. 1568 to 18 July 1573.

15th Ashikaga shōgun

Yoshiaki was installed in 1567 as the 15th Ashikaga Shōgun by Oda Nobunaga. Yoshiaki was not quite as tame as Nobunaga thought however – he conspired with Takeda Shingen to free himself from Oda's control. Nobunaga deposed Yoshiaki in 1673 and didn't bother replacing him, which is a pretty good indication of just how powerless / meaningless the Shōgunate had become.

Ashikaga Yoshiharu

Lived 5 March 1511 to 4 May 1550.

Ruled 25 Dec. 1521 to 20 Dec. 1545.

12th Ashikaga shōgun. First son of Ashikaga Yoshizumi.

Powerless. Controlled by the daimyō. Eventually forced to flee. (Why? From whom? To where?)

Ashikaga Yoshihide

Lived 1564 to 1568

Ruled 1568--1568

14th Ashikaga shōgun

Chosen (by whom?) as a two year old to replace Yoshiteru, but did not get Oda Nobunaga's support. With such a powerful daimyō against him, Yoshihide had no hope of ever getting to rule (never mind his age). His handlers fled, taking him with them of course, and Yoshihide died at the tender age of four.

Who was behind him, pulling the strings in his name? Seriously, there is no way a two year old was deciding anything. Was it his mother or a grandparent? A cousin or some faction at court? Obviously he had to have had some support from a few daimyō, but which ones and why?

Ashikaga Yoshihisa

Lived 23 Nov. 1465 to 26 March 1489.

Ruled 19 Dec. 1474 to 26 March 1489.

The 9th Ashikaga shōgun. The first son of Ashikaga Yoshimasa.

Ashikaga Yoshikatsu

Lived 9 Feb. 1434 to 21 July 1443.

Ruled 7 Nov. 1442 to 21 July 1443.

The 7th Ashikaga shōgun. The first son of Ashikaga Yoshinori.

Ashikaga Yoshikazu

Lived 24 July 1407 to 27 Feb. 1425.

Ruled 18 March 1423 to 27 Feb. 1425.

The 5th Ashikaga shōgun. Son of Ashikaga Yoshimochi.

Ashikaga Yoshimasa

Lived 2 Jan. 1436 to 7 Jan. 1490.

Ruled 29 April 1449 to 19 Dec. 1473.

The 8th Ashikaga shōgun. Son of Ashikaga Yoshinori, who was the 6th Ashikaga shōgun.

Yoshimasa was also known as Yoshishige.

Yoshimasa was shōgun during the Ōnin War which ravaged Kyōto.

He build the Ginkakuji.

Ashikaga Yoshimitsu

Lived 22 Aug. 1358 to 6 May 1408.

Ruled 30 Dec. 1368 to 17 Dec. 1394.

The 3rd Ashikaga shōgun. Son of Yoshiakira, the second shōgun.

Ended the Nambokuchō War.

Build the Kinkakuji.

Ashikaga Yoshimochi

Lived 12 Feb. 1386 to 18 Jan. 1428.

Ruled 17 Dec. 1394 to 18 March 1423.

The 4th Ashikaga shōgun. Son of Yoshimitsu, the third shōgun.

Ashikaga Yoshinori

Lived 13 June 1394 to 24 June 1441.

Ruled 15 March 1429 to 24 June 1441.

The 6th Ashikaga shōgun. Son of Yoshimitsu, the third shōgun.

Ashikaga Yoshitane

Lived 30 July 1466 to 9 April 1523.

Ruled 5 July 1490 to 29 June 1493. And again from 1 July 1508 to 25 Dec. 1521.

Yoshitane was the 10th and 12th Ashikaga Shōgun.

Also known as Yoshiki or Yoshitada.

Yoshitane lost (to whom?) at Shōgakuji in 1491 (?). He fled and was replaced by Ashikaga Yoshizumi (page XXX).

Ashikaga Yoshiteru

Lived 10 March 1536 to 19 May 1565.

Ruled 20 Dec. 1546 to 19 May 1565.

The 13th Ashikaga shōgun. First son of Yoshiharu, the twelfth shōgun.

Yoshiteru allied with Hosokawa Harumoto.

Was attacked by Miyoshi Chōkei and Matsunaga Hisahide, lost and committed suicide.

Ashikaga Yoshizumi

Lived 15 Dec. 1480 to 14 Aug. 1511.

Ruled 27 Dec. 1494 to 16 April 1508.

11th Ashikaga shōgun.

Replaced Yoshitane in 1491 but later Yoshitane replaced him.

Ashina Family

Ashina Morikiyo

Lived 1490 to 1553.

Ashina Morishige

Ashina Moritaka

Lived 1560 to 1583

Ashina Moriuji

Lived 1521 to 1580.

Aso Family

Aso Hisashi

Lived 1891 to 1940.

Aso Koretoyo

Lived 1543 to 1584.

Atagi Fuyuyasu

Died 1564.

Atagi Nobuyasu

Atobe Katsusuke

Lived 1529 to 1582.

Atsuji Sadahise

Awaji Province

The island of Awaji, between Honshū and Shikoku. Today it is part of Hyōgo Prefecture.

See Also

Hyōgo (pg. X),

Ayukawa Kiyonaga

Ayukawa Yoshisuke

Lived 6 Nov. 1880 to 13 Feb. 1967.

Also known as Aikawa Yoshisuke.

A businessman (check that) and politician originally from Yamaguchi Prefecture.

Azuchi-Momoyama Period

Japanese: 安土桃山時代 (あづちももやまじだい)

The Azuchi-Momoyama period is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. The period marks the governance of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The name Azuchi-Momoyama comes from the names of their respective castles in Kyōto, Azuchi and Momoyama.

The Azuchi-Momoyama period began out of the late Muromachi Period, known also as the Sengoku period, in 1568 when the armies of Nobunaga entered Kyōto and reestablished the Ashikaga Shogunate under the 15th and last shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaki. The puppet shogunate lasted for 5 years until Nobunaga drove Yoshiaki of the capital in 1573.

In 1582, Nobunaga was assassinated in a coup by retainer Akechi Mitsuhide at Honnou Temple in Kyōto. Nobunaga's retainer Hashiba Hideyoshi, the later Toyotomi Hideyoshi, vanquished Mitsuhide at the Battle of Yamazaki and consolidated his own power in Kyōto to eventually conquer all of Japan by 1590.

When Toyotomi Hideyoshi died in 1598, his retainer Tokugawa Ieyasu sought to subjugate the Toyotomi. After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu held supreme power over Japan beginning the Edo period, and finally in 1603 received the title of shogun officially establishing the Tokugawa Shogunate in Edo.

Reunification, 1573-1600

Between 1560 and 1600, powerful military leaders arose to defeat the warring daimyo and unify Japan. Three major figures dominated the period in succession: Oda Nobunaga (1534-82), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), and Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616), each of whom emerged as a major overlord with large military forces under his command. As their power increased, they looked to the imperial court in Kyōto for sanction. In 1568 Nobunaga, who had defeated another overlord's attempt to attack Kyōto in 1560, marched on the capital, gained the support of the emperor, and installed his own candidate in the succession struggle for shogun. Backed by military force, Nobunaga was able to control the bakufu.

Initial resistance to Nobunaga in the Kyōto region came from the Buddhist monks, rival daimyo, and hostile merchants. Surrounded by his enemies, Nobunaga struck first at the secular power of the militant Tendai Buddhists, destroying their monastic center at Mount Hiei near Kyōto and killing thousands of monks in 1571. By 1573 he had defeated the local daimyo, banished the last Ashikaga shogun, and ushered in what historians call the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1573-1600), named after the castles of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. Having taken these major steps toward reunification, Nobunaga then built a seven-story castle surrounded by stone walls at Azuchi on the shore of Lake Biwa. The castle was able to withstand firearms and became a symbol of the age of reunification. Nobunaga's power increased as he enfeoffed the conquered daimyo, broke down the barriers to free commerce, and drew the humbled religious communities and merchants into his military structure. He secured control of about one-third of the provinces through the use of large-scale warfare, and he institutionalized administrative practices, such as systematic village organization, tax collection, and standardized measurements. At the same time, other daimyo, both those that Nobunaga had conquered and those beyond his control, built their own heavily fortified castles and modernized their garrisons. In 1577 Nobunaga dispatched his chief general, Hideyoshi, to conquer twelve western Honshu provinces. The war was a protracted affair, and in 1582, when Nobunaga led an army to assist Hideyoshi, he was assassinated.

After destroying the forces responsible for Nobunaga's death, Hideyoshi was rewarded with a joint guardianship of Nobunaga's heir, who was a minor. By 1584 Hideyoshi had eliminated the three other guardians, taken complete control of Kyōto, and become the undisputed successor of his late overlord. A commoner by birth and without a surname, Hideyoshi was adopted by the Fujiwara family, given the surname Toyotomi, and granted the title kanpaku, representing civil and military control of all Japan. By the following year, he had secured alliances with three of the nine major daimyo coalitions and continued the war of reunification in Shikoku and northern Kyushu. In 1590, with an army of 200,000 troops, Hideyoshi defeated his last formidable rival, who controlled the Kanto region of eastern Honshu. The remaining contending daimyo capitulated, and the military reunification of Japan was complete.

All of Japan was controlled by the dictatorial Hideyoshi either directly or through his sworn vassals, and a new national government structure had evolved: a country unified under one daimyo alliance but still decentralized. The basis of the power structure was again the distribution of territory. A new unit of land measurement and assessment--the koku--was instituted. One koku was equivalent to about 180 liters of rice; daimyo were by definition those who held lands capable of producing 10,000 koku or more of rice. Hideyoshi personally controlled 2 million of the 18.5 million koku total national assessment (taken in 1598). Tokugawa Ieyasu, a powerful central Honshu daimyo (not completely under Hideyoshi's control), held 2.5 million koku.

Despite Hideyoshi's tremendous strength and the fear in which he was held, his position was far from secure. He attempted to rearrange the daimyo holdings to his advantage by, for example, reassigning the Tokugawa family to the conquered Kanto region and surrounding their new territory with more trusted vassals. He also adopted a hostage system for daimyo wives and heirs at his castle town at Osaka and used marriage alliances to enforce feudal bonds. He imposed the koku system and land surveys to reassess the entire nation. In 1590 Hideyoshi declared an end to any further class mobility or change in social status, reinforcing the class distinctions between cultivators and bushi (only the latter could bear arms). He provided for an orderly succession in 1591 by taking the title taiko, or retired kanpaku, turning the regency over to his son Hideyori. Only toward the end of his life did Hideyoshi try to formalize the balance of power by establishing certain administrative bodies: the five-member Board of Regents (one of them Ieyasu), sworn to keep peace and support the Toyotomi, the five-member Board of House Administrators for routine policy and administrative matters, and the three-member Board of Mediators, who were charged with keeping peace between the first two boards.

Momoyama art (1573-1615), named after the hill on which Hideyoshi built his castle at Fushima, south of Kyōto, flourished during this period. It was a period of interest in the outside world, the development of large urban centers, and the rise of the merchant and leisure classes. Ornate castle architecture and interiors adorned with painted screens embellished with gold leaf reflected daimyo power and wealth. Depictions of the "southern barbarians"--Europeans--were exotic and popular.

In 1577 Hideyoshi had seized Nagasaki, Japan's major point of contact with the outside world. He took control of the various trade associations and tried to regulate all overseas activities. Although China rebuffed his efforts to secure trade concessions, Hideyoshi succeeded in sending commercial missions to present-day Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. He was suspicious of Christianity, however, as potentially subversive to daimyo loyalties and he had some missionaries crucified.

Hideyoshi's major ambition was to conquer China, and in 1592, with an army of 200,000 troops, he invaded Korea, then a flourishing wealthy kingdom that enjoyed an alliance with China. His armies quickly overran the peninsula before losing momentum in the face of a combined Korean-Chinese force and crushing naval defeats suffered due to Admiral Yi Sun-sin's efforts. During peace talks, Hideyoshi demanded a division of Korea, freetrade status, and a Chinese princess as consort for the emperor. The equality with China sought by Japan was rebuffed by the Chinese, and peace efforts ended. In 1597, a second invasion was begun, but it abruptly ended with Hideyoshi's death in 1598.

Sources and Suggested Readings

This article incorporates public domain text from the Library of Congress Country Studies. - Japan (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html)

See Also

Muromachi period, Edo period

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azuchi-Momoyama_period

Azukizaka, Battle of (1542)

Took place in 1542.

Oda Nobuhide defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto.

See Also

Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Imagawa Yoshimoto (pg. X), Azukizawa, Battle of (1564) (pg. X),

Azukizaka, Battle of (1564)

The second battle of Azukizaka took place in 1564, when Tokugawa Ieyasu sought to combat the growing threat of the Ikko-ikki, a sect of warrior monks who were strongly against samurai rule. The Ikki consisted of samurai, monks, and peasants, many of whom were vassals of Tokugawa.

As the battle wore on, a number of samurai from the Ikki forces switched sides, deciding that their feudal obligation to Tokugawa was stronger than their loyalty to the Ikki; it was only because of this that Tokugawa was able to win the battle.

Suggested Readings

Turnbull, Stephen, 'Japanese Warrior Monks AD 949-1603'. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2003

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Azukizaka_(1564)

Baba Family – Buzen Province

Baba Family

Baba Nobufusa

Baba Nobuharu

Died 1582

Baba Nobukatsu

Lived 1514 to 1575

Baba Nobushige

Baba Tatsui

Lived 15 May 1850 to 1 Nov. 1888.

Baba Torasada

Bakin

aka Kyokutei Bakin

Lived 1767 to 1848

Bakumatsu

Japanese: 幕末

The name given to the last years of the Tokugawa Shōgunate.

The late Tokugawa shogunate is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. It is at end of the Edo period and preceded the Meiji era. The major ideological/political factions during this period were divided into the pro-imperialist Ishin Shishi (nationalist patriots) and the shogunate forces, including the elite Shinsengumi (newly selected corps) swordsmen. Although these two groups were the most visible powers, many other factions attempted to use the chaos of Bakumatsu to seize personal power. The turning point of the Bakumatsu was during the Boshin War and the Battle of Toba Fushimi. The Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu decided to deceive his own men and sailed for Edo from Osaka Bay. That was the main reason for the imperial army's victory.

End of seclusion

When Cmdre Matthew C. Perry's four-ship squadron appeared in Edo Bay in July 1853, the bakufu was thrown into turmoil. The chairman of the senior councillors, Abe Masahiro (1819–1857), was responsible for dealing with the Americans. Having no precedent to manage this threat to national security, Abe tried to balance the desires of the senior councillors to compromise with the foreigners, of the emperor who wanted to keep the foreigners out, and of the daimyo who wanted to go to war. Lacking consensus, Abe decided to compromise by accepting Perry's demands for opening Japan to foreign trade while also making military preparations. In March 1854, the Treaty of Peace and Amity (or Treaty of Kanagawa) opened two ports to American ships seeking provisions, guaranteed good treatment to shipwrecked American sailors, and allowed a United States consul to take up residence in Shimoda, a seaport on the Izu Peninsula, southwest of Edo. A commercial treaty, opening still more areas to American trade, was forced on the bakufu five years later.

The resulting damage to the bakufu was significant. Debate over government policy was unusual and had engendered public criticism of the bakufu. In the hope of enlisting the support of new allies, Abe, to the consternation of the fudai, had consulted with the shinpan and tozama daimyo, further undermining the already weakened bakufu. In the Ansei Reform (1854–1856), Abe then tried to strengthen the regime by ordering Dutch warships and armaments from the Netherlands and building new port defenses. In 1855 a naval training school with Dutch instructors was set up at Nagasaki, and a Western-style military school was established at Edo; by the next year, the government was translating Western books. Opposition to Abe increased within fudai circles, which opposed opening bakufu councils to tozama daimyo, and he was replaced in 1855 as chairman of the senior councillors by Hotta Masayoshi (1810–1864).

At the head of the dissident faction was Tokugawa Nariaki, who had long embraced a militant loyalty to the emperor along with antiforeign sentiments, and who had been put in charge of national defense in 1854. The Mito school—based on neo-Confucian and Shinto principles—had as its goal the restoration of the imperial institution, the turning back of the West, and the founding of a world empire under the divine Yamato Dynasty.

In the final years of the Tokugawa, foreign contacts increased as more concessions were granted. The new treaty with the United States in 1859 allowed more ports to be opened to diplomatic representatives, unsupervised trade at four additional ports, and foreign residences in Osaka and Edo. It also embodied the concept of extraterritoriality (foreigners were subject to the laws of their own countries but not to Japanese law). Hotta lost the support of key daimyo, and when Tokugawa Nariaki opposed the new treaty, Hotta sought imperial sanction. The court officials, perceiving the weakness of the bakufu, rejected Hotta's request and thus suddenly embroiled Kyoto and the emperor in Japan's internal politics for the first time in many centuries. When the shogun died without an heir, Nariaki appealed to the court for support of his own son, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), for shogun, a candidate favored by the shinpan and tozama daimyo. The fudai won the power struggle, however, installing Tokugawa Yoshitomi, arresting Nariaki and Keiki, executing Yoshida Shoin (1830–1859, a leading sonnō-jōi intellectual who had opposed the American treaty and plotted a revolution against the bakufu), and signing treaties with the United States and five other nations, thus ending more than 200 years of exclusion.

Bakumatsu modernization and conflicts

During the last years of the bakufu, or bakumatsu, the bakufu took strong measure to try to reassert its dominance, although its involvement with modernization and foreign powers was to make it a target of anti-Western sentiment throughout the country.

The army and the navy were modernized. A naval training school was established in Nagasaki in 1855. Naval students were sent to study in Western naval schools for several years, starting a tradition of foreign-educated future leaders, such as Admiral Enomoto. French naval engineers were hired to build naval arsenals, such as Yokosuka and Nagasaki. By the end of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1867, the Japanese navy of the shogun already possessed eight western-style steam warships around the flagship Kaiyō Maru, which were used against pro-imperial forces during the Boshin war, under the command of Admiral Enomoto. A French military mission was established to help modernize the armies of the bakufu.

Revering the emperor as a symbol of unity, extremists wrought violence and death against the Bakufu and Han authorities and foreigners. Foreign naval retaliation in the Anglo-Satsuma War led to still another concessionary commercial treaty in 1865, but Yoshitomi was unable to enforce the Western treaties. A bakufu army was defeated when it was sent to crush dissent in the han of Satsuma and Choshu in 1866. Finally, in 1867, the emperor died and was succeeded by his minor son Mutsuhito.

Keiki reluctantly became head of the Tokugawa house and shogun. He tried to reorganize the government under the emperor while preserving the shogun's leadership role. Fearing the growing power of the Satsuma and Choshu daimyo, other daimyo called for returning the shogun's political power to the emperor and a council of daimyo chaired by the former Tokugawa shogun. Keiki accepted the plan in late 1867 and resigned, announcing an "imperial restoration". The Satsuma, Choshu, and other han leaders and radical courtiers, however, rebelled, seized the imperial palace, and announced their own restoration on January 3, 1868.

Following the Boshin war (1868–1869), the bakufu was abolished, and Keiki was reduced to the ranks of the common daimyo. Resistance continued in the North throughout 1868, and the bakufu naval forces under Admiral Enomoto Takeaki continued to hold out for another six months in Hokkaido, where they founded the short-lived Republic of Ezo.

See also:

Ohmura Masujiro, Sakamoto Ryoma, Kondo Isami, Takasugi Shinsaku, Yoshida Shoin, Katsura Kogoro, Nomura Motoni, Hayashi Daigaku no kami (Lord Rector, Confucianist), Ido Tsushima no kami (Governor of Yedo, former Gov. of Nagasaki), Izawa Mimasaka no kami (Gov. of Uraga, former Gov of Nagasaki), Kawakami Gensai (Greatest of 4 hitokiri, active in assassinations during this time period), Ernest Satow

External links

Languages and the Diplomatic Contacts in the Late Tokugawa Shogunate:

http://www.webkohbo.com/info3/bakumatu_menu/bakutop.html (in Japanese)

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bakumatsu



Ban Kokei

Lived 1733 to 1806

Ban Nobutomo

Lived 1775 to 1848

Battles

Rather than list every single battle in the history of Japan with a redirect to another page, there is just this one. Battles are listed in `(Name), Battle of' form so look under `name' instead. Thus the Battle of Sekigahara is found under `Sekigahara, Battle of' in the S's.

The index also has a listing of all the battles under their entry names as well as a long list under `Battles'.

Bekki Shozaemon

aka Betsuki Shozaemon??

Died 21 Sep 1652.

Ben En

Died 1279

Bengyoku

aka Kei-a Shonin

Lived 1818 to 1880

Benkei

aka Musashi-bo

Died 1189

Warrior and retainer of Minamoto Yoshitsune. Famous for his martial exploits.

See Also

Minamoto Yoshitsune (pg. X),

Ben no Naishi

Benten

aka Benzaiten

Bessho Family

Bessho Harusada

Bessho Nagaharu

Lived 1558 to 1580

Bessho Toyoharu

Bifuku Mon-in

aka Fujiwara Toku-ko

Lived 1117 to 1160

Bingo Province

A province on the Inland Sea side of western Honshū, in what is today Hiroshima Prefecture. Bingo bordered on Bitchū, Hōki, Izumo, Iwami, and Aki Provinces.

See Also

Hiroshima Prefecture (pg. X), Aki Province (pg. X), Bitchū Province (pg. X), Hōki Province (pg. X), Iwaki Province (pg. X), Izumo Province (pg. X), Mimasaka Province (pg. X)

Bingo no Saburo

aka Kojima Takanori

Bishamon

Bitatsu-tennō

aka Osada,

aka Nunakurafutotama-shiki

Reigned 572 to 585.

The 30th Emperor of Japan.

Bitchū Province

A province on the Inland Sea side of western Honshū, in what is today Okayama Prefecture. Bitchū bordered on Hōki, Mimasaki, Bizen, and Bingo Provinces.

See Also

Okayama Prefecture (pg. X), Bingo Province (pg. X), Bizen Province (pg. X), Hōki Province (pg. X), Mimasaka Province (pg. X)

Bitō Family

Bitō Nishu

Lived 1745 to 1813

Bizen Province

A province on the Inland Sea side of Honshū, in what is today Okayama Prefecture. Bizen borders on Mimasaki, Harima, and Bitchū Provinces.

See Also

Okayama Prefecture (pg. X), Bitchū Province (pg. X), Harima Province (pg. X), Mimasaka Province (pg. X),

Bojo Family

A kuge family descended from Fujiwara Morosuke.

See Also

Fujiwara Family (pg. X),

Fujiwara Morosuke (pg. X),

Bomon Kiyotada

Died 1338.

A member of the kuge class. Son of Fujiwara Toshisuke, Kiyotada worked against Ashikaga Takauji at the court.

Bon

The festival of the dead. Some parts of Japan celebrate Bon (also Obon) in mid-July, others in mid-August.

The spirits of the dead are believed to return to earth at Bon. During this holiday, which generally lasts about three days, many people return to their hometowns to visit their families and say hello to their ancestors.

Boshin War

Japanese: 戊辰戦争

1868-1869

The Boshin War was fought between supporters of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the new Imperial forces.

Discontent between the shogunate and the reformist sonnō-jōi movement had been brewing for years. In November 1866, Emperor Meiji had given the rebellious provinces of Satsuma and Choshu the right to overthrow the shogunate; however, reigning Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu deftly sidestepped this by resigning his post (but not his power) the next day.

Events came to a head on January 3, 1868 when the emperor declared his own restoration to full power, and the war started seven days later when Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu declared the declaration "illegal" and attacked Kyoto, the seat of the emperor. Despite a 3:1 numerical advantage and training by French military advisors, the first significant battle near Toba and Fushimi led to a rout of the 15,000-strong shogunate forces, and Yoshinobu was forced to flee to Edo. Saigo Takamori led the victorious imperial forces north and east through Japan, eventually leading to the unconditional surrender of Edo in May 1868.

After Yoshinobu's surrender, most of Japan accepted the emperor's rule, but a core of shogunate supporters led by the Aizu clan continued the resistance. After a protracted month-long battle, Aizu finally admitted defeat on September 23, leading to the mass suicide of the Byakkotai (White Tiger Corps) young warriors. A month later, Edo was renamed Tokyo, and the Meiji Era started.

In a final chapter to the war, navy official Enomoto Takeaki had fled to Hokkaido with the remnants of the shogun's navy and a handful of faithful French military advisors (especially Jules Brunet) and attempted to establish the Republic of Ezo there, but this too was crushed by Meiji forces in May 1869, bringing the war to an end.

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boshin_War

Buddhism

Bukkyo in Japanese. One of the two main religious influences on Japanese culture (Shintō is the other).

The man known as the Buddha lived around 550 B.C. in India and before he died he started a religion whose impact on Asia cannot be measured. Although it eventually died out in its native India, Buddhism spread to Nepal, Tibet, China, Korea, and Japan, as well as the countries of South East Asia. Buddhism was already over a thousand years old when it reached Japan and had changed considerably in those years.

The Buddha was concerned with just one thing --- how to end suffering. Indians back then, like many today, believed that all living things are reborn in a constant cycle of birth and death. The Buddha also believed this and concluded that if we could break free from this cycle, we could end the suffering that goes with living. His Four Noble Truths sum it up better than I can:

  1. All existence is suffering.

  2. Suffering is caused by desire.

  3. If you end desire then you end suffering.

  4. Following the Eight Fold Path will enable you to end desire.

The Eight Fold Path describes the proper way to live to achieve enlightenment. It is not an easy path, and in theory it could take you several lifetimes to finally transcend the cycle of birth and death. The path demands great sacrifice and discipline. Obviously such a seemingly pessimistic and difficult religion is going to have some public relations problems. Joe (and Jane) Layman doesn't have enough spare time to spend hours sitting on his butt meditating. Neither are most people real interested in giving up married life. So why has Buddhism been so popular? The answer is simple: in Tibet and China it mixed with local shamanistic ideas and practices to become a “Big Vehicle” offering rituals and prayers to comfort the common people and offer them some hope of salvation in this lifetime. The Buddha himself was deified. Eventually there were a multitude of schools (sects) in East Asia each stressing some element of the Buddha's teachings or those of popular priests after him. In Southeast Asia Buddhism was not exposed to Tibetan or Chinese practices and so has remained much closer to original Buddhism. The Buddhism which cameinto Japan was of the “Big Vehicle” sort. Each class found a school of Buddhism that suited its outlook and station. Thus, the imperial court was drawn to sects heavy in ritual and philosophy. Commoners generally went for the simpler sects which promised them salvation.

The samurai found Zen Buddhism perfectly suited to their needs --- the need to die at anytime without any hesitation.

Add info on the introduction of Buddhism to Japan and the various schools.

Bukeyashiki

aka “Samurai District'', the Bukeyashiki is an area in Kanazawa with old samurai houses from the Tokugawa Period.

See Also

Kanazawa City (pg. X), Tokugawa Shōgunate (pg. X),

Bukko Kokushi

aka Sogen

Lived 1226 to 1286

Bukkyo

see Buddhism on page XXX.

Bummei

Nengō: 1469--1486

Bumpō

Nengō: 1317--1318.

Bun'an

Nengō: 1444--1448

Bunchū

Nengō: 1371-1375

Bun'ei

Nengō: 1264--1274

Bungo Province

A province in eastern Kyūshū, which bordered on Buzen, Hyūga, Higo, Chikugo, and Chikuzen Provinces. Today the area is Ōita Prefecture.

See Also

Buzen Province (pg. X), Chikugo Province (pg. X), Chikuzen Province (pg. X), Higo Province (pg. X), Hyūga Province (pg. X), Ōita Prefecture (pg. X)

Bunji

Nengō: 1185--1189

Bunkan

Died 1357

Bunka

Nengō: 1804--1817

Bunki

Nengō: 1501--1503

Bunkyū

Nengō: 1861--1863.

Bunnan

Nengō: 1444--1448.

aka Bun'an.

Bun'ō

Nengō: 1260.

Bunreki

Nengō: 1234

aka Bunryaku.

Bunroku

Nengō: 1592--1595

Bunryaku

Nengō: 1234

aka Bunreki.

Bunsei

Nengō: 1818--1829

Bunshō

Nengō: 1466.

Buntoku-tennō

see Montoku-tennō on page 230.

Bunwa

Nengō of the Northern dynasty: 1352--1355

Bunya Family

aka Fumiya Family

Buretsu-tennō

aka Ohatsuse-waka-sasagi.

The 25th Emperor of Japan.

Reigned 499 to 506.

Buson

aka Taniguchi Buson

aka Yosa

Butsu Sorai

aka Ogui Sorai

Lived 1666 to 1728

Buzen Province

A province in northern Kyūshū, which bordered on Bungo and Chikuzen Provinces. Today the area is a part of Fukuoka Prefecture.

Domains (feifs) include Nakatsu, worth 120,000 koku and held by Kuroda Nagamasa prior to the Battle of Sekigahara (he was moved to a bigger domain after that battle).

See Also

Bungo Province (pg. X), Chikuzen Province (pg. X), Fukuoka Prefecture (pg. X), Kuroda Nagamasa (pg. X), Sekigahara, Battle of (pg. X)

Chang Tso-lin – Currency

Chang Tso-lin

Died 4 June 1928

Chang was a warlord in Northern China. He was assassinated by officers of the Japanese Kwantung army.

Chian

Chiba City

The capital of Chiba Prefecture.

Chiba Family

Chiba Kanetane

Chiba Prefecture

Area: 5,156 km2 (1995)

Capital: Chiba

Population: 5,780,000 (1996)

Chiba Sadatane

Lived 1291 to 1351

Chiba Sanetane

Chiba Shigetane

Chiba Takatane

Chiba Tanenao

Chiba Toshitane

Lived 1528 to 1559

Chiba Tsunetane

Born on the 24th day of the 5th month of 1118.

Died on the 24th day of the 3rd month of 1201.

Chikamatsu Monzaemon

aka Sugimori Nobumori

Lived 1653 to 1724

Chikugo Province

An old province in the area that is today part of Fukuoka Prefecture, on Kyūshū. Chikugo bordered on Hizen, Chikuzen, Bungo, and Higo Provinces.

See Also

Bungo Province (pg. X), Chikuzen Province (pg. X), Fukuoka (pg. X), Higo Province (pg. X), Hizen Province (pg. X), Kyūshū (pg. X),

Chikusa Family (daimyō)

Chikusa Family (kuge)

Chikusa Tadaharu

Chikusa Tadamoto

Chikusa Takamichi

Chikuzen Province

Province in the area that is today part of Fukuoka Prefecture on Kyūshū. Chikuzen bordered on Buzen, Bungo, Chikugo, and Hizen.

Domains (feifs) include Najima, worth 520,000 koku and granted to Kuroda Nagamasa after the Battle of Sekigahara.

See Also

Bungo Province (pg. X), Buzen Province (pg. X), Chikugo Province (pg. X), Fukuoka (pg. X), Hizen Province (pg. X), Kuroda Nagamasa (pg. X), Kyūshū (pg. X), Sekigahara, Battle of (pg. X),

Chiryaku

Chitsu

Cho Densu

aka Mincho

Lived 1352 to 1431.

Chōgen

Nengō: 1028--1036.

Chōhō

Nengō: 999--1003.

Chōji

Nengō: 1104--1105.

Chōjō

Nengō: 1132--1134.

aka Chōshō.

Chōkan

Nengō: 1163--1164.

Chōkei-tennō

The 98th Emperor of Japan.

Reigned 1368 to 1383.

Chōkyō

Nengō: 1487--1488.

Chōkyū

Nengo: 1040--1043.

Chōreki

Nengō: 1037--1039.

aka Chōryaku.

Chōroku

Nengō: 1457--1459.

Chōryaku

Nengō: 1037--1039.

aka Chōreki.

Chōshō

Nengō: 1132--1134.

aka Chōjō.

Chōsokabe Family

Chōsokabe Kunichika

Lived 1504 to 1560.

Chōsokabe Morichika

Lived 1575 to 1615.

Was on the losing side at Sekigahara. He later joined the defenders at Osaka Castle, for which he was beheaded after the castle fell.

Chōsokabe Motochika

Lived 1538 to 19 May 1599.

Chōsokabe Nobuchika

Lived 1565 to 1587.

Chōtoku

Nengō: 995--998.

Cho Tsugutsura

Lived 1522 to 1577.

Cho Tsuratatsu

Chōwa

Nengō: 1012--1016.

Chūai-tennō

The 14th Emperor of Japan.

Chūkyō-tennō

The 85th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 10 Oct. 1218 to 20 May 1234.

Reigned 20 April 1221 to 9 July 1221.

Class `A' War Crimes

See War Crimes, Class A on page XXX

Comfort Women

Japanese: 慰安婦 (ianfu)

The term “comfort women” is a euphemism for women serving in military brothels in Japanese-occupied countries during World War II. Many surviving women have testified to being tricked, coerced, or forced into serving the Imperial Japanese Army during its occupation of Korea, China, and much of South East Asia.

In the Japanese language, ianfu (comfort woman) is a euphemism for prostitute. However, now it specifically refers to jūgun-ianfu (従軍慰安婦, “military comfort women”) – those women who served in Japanese military brothels during World War II in Japanese colonies and war areas. Many of these “comfort women” were forced, coerced, or tricked into sexual service for the Japanese military. According to research by Dr. Hirohumi Hayasi, a professor at Kantō-Gakuin Daigaku, comfort women included Chinese, Malays, Thais, Filipinos, Indonesians, Burmese, Vietnamese, Indians, Dutch, Japanese, Koreans and natives of the Pacific islands. Estimates of the number of comfort women during the war range from 20,000 to 300,000. Most of the brothels where comfort women served were located in Japanese military bases, usually in occupied areas in mainland Asia.

Brothels as Part of Japanese Military Policy

One of the ironies of Japanese military brothel system was that part of the reason the system was introduced was to prevent Japanese soldiers from committing rape. The Japanese military considered that, unless soldiers were provided with access to brothels, the soldiers might rape woman in areas under Japanese control, which might undermine support for Japanese rule. Another reason for the system was to keep the medical inspection of the prostitutes directly under the control of the military, thus preventing the spread of STDs among soldiers. A third reason was to provide sex as part of recreation to raise the morale of troops; a fourth was to bring the brothels directly to the front line so as to remove the need to grant leave to soldiers.

Initially, a conventional method of procuring prostitutes was used. Middlemen procured prostitutes within Japan and from Japanese colonies in Korea, Taiwan and Manchuria. Some were recruited by advertising in newspapers. Most of those who became comfort women by answering advertisements were already prostitutes and offered their services voluntarily. However, many were tricked into service or their families were forced to sell them due to economic hardship. Some who became confort women were kidnapped by the middlemen, especially in Japanese colonies (as opposed to Japan proper). Japanese women who served in overseas brothels are known as karayukisan and they often become managers of these military brothels.

However, the supply from these sources soon dried up, especially from Japan, where the Ministry of Foreign Affairs resisted issuing visas for Japanese comfort women. They believed the presence of Japanese prostitutes in colonial areas would tarnish the image of the empire. Soon, the military sought women directly from local sources. This is when the rampant abuse of the system occurred. Although in urban areas the usual methods – middlemen and existing brothels – might be sufficient, at the front lines or in the countryside (where middlemen or brothels were not sufficient to meet demand) the army directly demanded that the local leaders procure women for their brothels.

Responsibility and Compensation

Japan regards all World War II compensation claims to be settled, with the single exception of North Korea, with which it has not signed any treaty for war time settlement. These treaties settle all claims at the government level. However, as is the case with most treaties concerning the War, they do not cover civilian claims.

Japan regards South Korea's official compensation claim as having been settled by the Treaty on Basic Relations and Agreement of Economic Cooperation and Property Claims between Japan and the Republic of Korea in 1965.

In 1990 the Korean Council for Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery, with help from Japanese organizations, filed suit, demanding apologies and compensation. Independently several comfort women also filed suit, in the Tokyo District Court. More suits followed in the ensuing years. However, it was widely expected from the beginning that the court would reject all of these claims on the basis of the statutes of limitation or on the basis that the state is immune from civil suits in court on the matter of wartime conduct. Nevertheless, these suits have helped to revive and keep alive the issue of comfort women in Japan as well as in the international media.

Former Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone stated in his memoirs, published in 1978, that he set up a comfort house for his troops when he was a navy lieutenant in charge of accounting. Nevertheless, up until 1992, the Japanese government denied any official connection to the wartime brothels. In June 1990, the Japanese government declared that they were run by private contractors. However, since 1992, when the historian Yoshimi Yoshiaki discovered incriminating documents in the archives of Japan's National Defense Agency indicating that the military was directly involved in running the brothels (by, for example, selecting the agents who recruited or coerced women into service), Japan's official position has been one of admitting “moral but not legal” responsibility.

In 1995, a Japanese semi-governmental “Asia Women's Fund” was set up for atonement in the form of material compensation and to provide each surviving comfort woman with an unofficial signed apology from the prime minister. Because of their unofficial nature, many comfort women have rejected these payments and continue to seek an official apology and compensation.

Following official admission of a military connection to the brothels in 1992, the debate has shifted to consideration of evidence and testimony of coercive recruitment of comfort women during the war. In a number of mock trials (without cross-examination), surviving women have testified of being subjected to coercion and rape.

The Japanese Debate Over Comfort Women

The popular conception of “comfort women” outside Japan is that all comfort women were kidnapped by Japanese soldiers to serve as sex slaves under direct order from the Japanese military or the government. This simplified picture misses certain important aspects of the issue. Military comfort women were part of the military brothel system which was not uniquely Japanese. As with any other military brothels, procurement was largely done through middlemen. The issue is extremely controversial in regard to the case of Korea.

From 1991 to 1992, the Asahi Shimbun, one of the major daily newspapers in Japan, ran a series about military comfort women. This is regarded as the start of the comfort women controversy in Japan, which coincided with the re-examination of other wartime atrocities such as the Nanking Massacre. Such re-examinations were prominent through out 1990s. In this series the Asahi Shimbun published excerpts of the book published in 1983 by Kiyosada Yosida, Watashi no Sensō Hanzai – Chōsenjin Renkō Kōsei Kiroku (My War Crime: The Record of the Forced Removal of Koreans), in which the author confesses to forcibly procuring women from Jeju Island in Korea under the direct order of the Japanese military. In 1992, the paper also published the discovery of documents in the archives of Japan's National Defense Agency indicating that the military was directly involved in selecting the agents who recruited these women into service.

That article implied that the document is a smoking gun, proving the government's complicty in the forcible kidnapping of women. The publication of the article was just five days before Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa paid a visit to South Korea. Miyazawa made a formal apology during that visit. However, the investigation by Hata Ikuhiko subsequently discovered that the entire Jeju Island episode documented in Yoshida's book to be fiction, which the author of the book later admitted. Moreover, the supposedly incriminating documents proving the military's involvement in selecting the agents in fact showed that the military issued such directives to prevent abuse, in response to reports of complaints from the colonial police force about the methods employed by these agents. And it was shown that some of these women were sold by their parents to these agents as bonded labour, a practice not uncommon at the time both in Japan and in Korea.

These revelations severely damaged the credibility of the movement advocating for comfort women in Japan – though subsequent research proved that Japanese soldiers in the frontline had in fact forced women to work at military brothels. Moreover, the existence of middlemen does not change the fact that many women were coerced or sold against their wills. However, the context in which such acts were carried out would change the nuance of the moral responsibility.

A common defense heard in Japan is that there is no document to show that Japanese military hierarchy did order those middlemen to procure comfort women by force, that the purpose of military brothel system was to prevent rape, and that the military issued the directive to select agents so that these agents would not get involved in illegal methods of procurement. Moreover, the existence of middlemen makes it difficult for ex-comfort women to pursue compensation claims. Prostitution and bonded labour were legal at the time and if the coercion was done by the middlemen much of blame, whether legal or moral, can be shifted to them.

Furthermore, it is difficult this long after the alleged crimes for those who claim to have been kidnapped by Japanese soldiers to prove their allegations. While it is easy to believe that such crimes took place, it is another thing entirely to prove in a court of law that any specific instance occurred. As is the case for the Japanese war guilt issue, focusing on the existence of middlemen allows those who wish to deny responsibility to deflect part of blame back to the Korean or Chinese if not to the actual victims themselves. Many of these agents were locals, not Japanese, and some comfort women were sold to middlemen by their parents for economic reasons. Some community leaders who provided comfort women under threat from Japanese army had to use tricks or coercion. Pointing to the complicity of locals allows those who wish to deny guilt to claim that Japan merely took advantage of what locals were already doing as an accepted practice at that period.

There is much debate over how much blame should be placed on the military hierarchy, or for that matter, the Japanese government. Though those who wish to deny official responsibility might admit that abuse at a local level might have occurred on an individual basis, it is common for them to blame the entire matter on mere failure of oversight, confused policy in regard to a "suspected" guerilla force, and a lack of resources at the front line. For example, former Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone stated in his memoir published in 1978 that when he was a navy lieutenant he set up a comfort house for about 3000 of his troops. When criticised about this matter, he refused to admit any responsibility, insisting that he was never aware that the women were forced into service.

Military Brothels, Human Trafficking, and Sexual Slavery in Context

One criticism of the general reporting on the issue of comfort women in Western countries is that this reporting has subtly obscured the idea of the military brothel, making it appear that the concept of comfort women is uniquely Japanese. Military brothels are not at all unique, though the direct involvement of soldiers in procurement, as was sometimes the case in the Japanese military during World War II, is rare in the 20th century.

British, French and German forces have all utilised such institutions for the same reason the Japanese military did: to prevent STDs, to maintain the morale of the troops, and to allow soldiers to have sex near the front line. During the occupation of Japan, the U.S. army utilised military brothels set up by the Japanese government known as the Recreation and Amusement Association. Many Japanese women worked there under pressure because of economic hardship or coerced through the use of debt bondage. South Korea had a similar system during the Korean War and the Vietnam War. There were brothels for the exclusive use of U.S. soldiers inside certain camps in Vietnam War. Even U.N. peace keeping forces attract prostitution – there were increases in prostitutes in Cambodia and in Bosnia once U.N. forces moved in. There was one highly publicised case in which members of the U.N. peacekeeping force were accused of direct involvement in procurement of sex slaves for a local brothel in Bosnia. Setting up such an institution in an economically deprived area is bound to involve a degree of forced prostitution, but the use of agents for procurement and management of brothels has allowed the military to be shielded from the issue of sexual slavery and human trafficking.

References

Some recent work on the comfort women issue include:

* Tanaka, Yuki Japan's Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery and Prostitution During World War II and the US Occupation, London, Routledge: 2002. ISBN 0415194016.

* Yoshimi, Yoshiaki Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During World War II, Columbia University Press, 2001. (mentioned RAA too) ISBN 023112032X

* Molasky, Michael S. American Occupation of Japan and Okinawa, Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0415191947 ISBN 0415260442

* Wakabayasi, Bob Tadasii "Comfort Women: Beyond Litigious Feminism" in issue 58:2 of Monumenta Nipponica: A review of these books and a history and historiography of the issue, from a view critical of the above books.

Links

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comfort_women

Constitution of 1889

This is a translation of the first constitution of Japan, promulgated in 1889.

CONSTITUTION OF THE EMPIRE OF JAPAN, 1889

Imperial Oath Sworn in the Sanctuary in the Imperial Palace (Tsuge-bumi)

We, the Successor to the prosperous Throne of Our Predecessors, do humbly and solemnly swear to the Imperial Founder of Our House and to Our other Imperial Ancestors that, in pursuance of a great policy co-extensive with the Heavens and with the Earth, We shall maintain and secure from decline the ancient form of government.

In consideration of the progressive tendency of the course of human affairs and in parallel with the advance of civilization, We deem it expedient, in order to give clearness and distinctness to the instructions bequeathed by the Imperial Founder of Our House and by Our other Imperial Ancestors, to establish fundamental laws formulated into express provisions of law, so that, on the one hand, Our Imperial posterity may possess an express guide for the course they are to follow, and that, on the other, Our subjects shall thereby be enabled to enjoy a wider range of action in giving Us their support, and that the observance of Our laws shall continue to the remotest ages of time. We will thereby to give greater firmness to the stability of Our country and to promote the welfare of all the people within the boundaries of Our dominions; and We now establish the Imperial House Law and the Constitution. These Laws come to only an exposition of grand precepts for the conduct of the government, bequeathed by the Imperial Founder of Our House and by Our other Imperial Ancestors. That we have been so fortunate in Our reign, in keeping with the tendency of the times, as to accomplish this work, We owe to the glorious Spirits of the Imperial Founder of Our House and of Our other Imperial Ancestors.

We now reverently make Our prayer to Them and to Our Illustrious Father, and implore the help of Their Sacred Spirits, and make to Them solemn oath never at this time nor in the future to fail to be an example to our subjects in the observance of the Laws hereby established.

May the heavenly Spirits witness this Our solemn Oath.

Imperial Rescript on the Promulgation of the Constitution

Whereas We make it the joy and glory of Our heart to behold the prosperity of Our country, and the welfare of Our subjects, We do hereby, in virtue of the Supreme power We inherit from Our Imperial Ancestors, promulgate the present immutable fundamental law, for the sake of Our present subjects and their descendants.

The Imperial Founder of Our House and Our other Imperial ancestors, by the help and support of the forefathers of Our subjects, laid the foundation of Our Empire upon a basis, which is to last forever. That this brilliant achievement embellishes the annals of Our country, is due to the glorious virtues of Our Sacred Imperial ancestors, and to the loyalty and bravery of Our subjects, their love of their country and their public spirit. Considering that Our subjects are the descendants of the loyal and good subjects of Our Imperial Ancestors, We doubt not but that Our subjects will be guided by Our views, and will sympathize with all Our endeavors, and that, harmoniously cooperating together, they will share with Us Our hope of making manifest the glory of Our country, both at home and abroad, and of securing forever the stability of the work bequeathed to Us by Our Imperial Ancestors.

Preamble (or Edict) (Joyu)

Having, by virtue of the glories of Our Ancestors, ascended the throne of a lineal succession unbroken for ages eternal; desiring to promote the welfare of, and to give development to the moral and intellectual faculties of Our beloved subjects, the very same that have been favored with the benevolent care and affectionate vigilance of Our Ancestors; and hoping to maintain the prosperity of the State, in concert with Our people and with their support, We hereby promulgate, in pursuance of Our Imperial Rescript of the 12th day of the 10th month of the 14th year of Meiji, a fundamental law of the State, to exhibit the principles, by which We are guided in Our conduct, and to point out to what Our descendants and Our subjects and their descendants are forever to conform.

The right of sovereignty of the State, We have inherited from Our Ancestors, and We shall bequeath them to Our descendants. Neither We nor they shall in the future fail to wield them, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution hereby granted.

We now declare to respect and protect the security of the rights and of the property of Our people, and to secure to them the complete enjoyment of the same, within the extent of the provisions of the present Constitution and of the law.

The Imperial Diet shall first be convoked for the 23rd year of Meiji and the time of its opening shall be the date, when the present Constitution comes into force.

When in the future it may become necessary to amend any of the provisions of the present Constitution, We or Our successors shall assume the initiative right, and submit a project for the same to the Imperial Diet. The Imperial Diet shall pass its vote upon it, according to the conditions imposed by the present Constitution, and in no otherwise shall Our descendants or Our subjects be permitted to attempt any alteration thereof.

Our Ministers of State, on Our behalf, shall be held responsible for the carrying out of the present Constitution, and Our present and future subjects shall forever assume the duty of allegiance to the present Constitution.

I. THE EMPEROR

Article 1. The Empire of Japan shall be reigned over and governed by a line of Emperors unbroken for ages eternal.

Article 2. The Imperial Throne shall be succeeded to by Imperial male descendants, according to the provisions of the Imperial House Law.

Article 3. The Emperor is sacred and inviolable.

Article 4. The Emperor is the head of the Empire, combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty, and exercises them, according to the provisions of the present Constitution.

Article 5. The Emperor exercises the legislative power with the consent of the Imperial Diet.

Article 6. The Emperor gives sanction to laws, and orders them to be promulgated and executed.

Article 7. The Emperor convokes the Imperial Diet, opens, closes, and prorogues it, and dissolves the House of Representatives.

Article 8. The Emperor, in consequence of an urgent necessity to maintain public safety or to avert public calamities, issues, when the Imperial Diet is not sitting, Imperial ordinances in the place of law.

(2) Such Imperial Ordinances are to be laid before the Imperial Diet at its next session, and when the Diet does not approve the said Ordinances, the Government shall declare them to be invalid for the future.

Article 9. The Emperor issues or causes to be issued, the Ordinances necessary for the carrying out of the laws, or for the maintenance of the public peace and order, and for the promotion of the welfare of the subjects. But no Ordinance shall in any way alter any of the existing laws.

Article 10. The Emperor determines the organization of the different branches of the administration, and salaries of all civil and military officers, and appoints and dismisses the same. Exceptions especially provided for in the present Constitution or in other laws, shall be in accordance with the respective provisions (bearing thereon).

Article 11. The Emperor has the supreme command of the Army and Navy.

Article 12. The Emperor determines the organization and peace standing of the Army and Navy.

Article 13. The Emperor declares war, makes peace, and concludes treaties.

Article 14. The Emperor declares a state of siege.

(2) The conditions and effects of a state of siege shall be determined by law.

Article 15. The Emperor confers titles of nobility, rank, orders and other marks of honor.

Article 16. The Emperor orders amnesty, pardon, commutation of punishments and rehabilitation.

Article 17. A Regency shall be instituted in conformity with the provisions of the Imperial House Law.

(2) The Regent shall exercise the powers appertaining to the Emperor in His name.

II. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF SUBJECTS

Article 18. The conditions necessary for being a Japanese subject shall be determined by law.

Article 19. Japanese subjects may, according to qualifications determined in laws or ordinances, be appointed to civil or military or any other public offices equally.

Article 20. Japanese subjects are amenable to service in the Army or Navy, according to the provisions of law.

Article 21. Japanese subjects are amenable to the duty of paying taxes, according to the provisions of law.

Article 22. Japanese subjects shall have the liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits of the law.

Article 23. No Japanese subject shall be arrested, detained, tried or punished, unless according to law.

Article 24. No Japanese subject shall be deprived of his right of being tried by the judges determined by law.

Article 25. Except in the cases provided for in the law, the house of no Japanese subject shall be entered or searched without his consent.

Article 26. Except in the cases mentioned in the law, the secrecy of the letters of every Japanese subject shall remain inviolate.

Article 27. The right of property of every Japanese subject shall remain inviolate.

(2) Measures necessary to be taken for the public benefit shall be any provided for by law.

Article 28. Japanese subjects shall, within limits not prejudicial to peace and order, and not antagonistic to theirduties as subjects, enjoy freedom of religious belief.

Article 29. Japanese subjects shall, within the limits of law, enjoy the liberty of speech, writing, publication, public meetings and associations.

Article 30. Japanese subjects may present petitions, by observing the proper forms of respect, and by complying with the rules specially provided for the same.

Article 31. The provisions contained in the present Chapter shall not affect the exercises of the powers appertaining to the Emperor, in times of war or in cases of a national emergency.

Article 32. Each and every one of the provisions contained in the preceding Articles of the present Chapter, that are not inconflict with the laws or the rules and discipline of the Army and Navy, shall apply to the officers and men of the Army and of the Navy.

III. THE IMPERIAL DIET

Article 33. The Imperial Diet shall consist of two Houses, a House of Peers and a House of Representatives.

Article 34. The House of Peers shall, in accordance with the ordinance concerning the House of Peers, be composed of the members of the Imperial Family, of the orders of nobility, and of those who have been nominated thereto by the Emperor.

Article 35. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members elected by the people, according to the provisions of the law of Election.

Article 36. No one can at one and the same time be a Member of both Houses.

Article 37. Every law requires the consent of the Imperial Diet.

Article 38. Both Houses shall vote upon projects of law submitted to it by the Government, and may respectively initiate projects of law.

Article 39. A Bill, which has been rejected by either the one or the other of the two Houses, shall not be brought in again during the same session.

Article 40. Both Houses can make representations to the Government, as to laws or upon any other subject. When, however, such representations are not accepted, they cannot be made a second time during the same session.

Article 41. The Imperial Diet shall be convoked every year.

Article 42. A session of the Imperial Diet shall last during three months. In case of necessity, the duration of a session may be prolonged by the Imperial Order.

Article 43. When urgent necessity arises, an extraordinary session may be convoked in addition to the ordinary one.

(2) The duration of an extraordinary session shall be determined by Imperial Order.

Article 44. The opening, closing, prolongation of session and prorogation of the Imperial Diet, shall be effected simultaneously for both Houses.

(2) In case the House of Representatives has been ordered to dissolve, the House of Peers shall at the same time be prorogued.

Article 45. When the House of Representatives has been ordered to dissolve, Members shall be caused by Imperial Order to be newly elected, and the new House shall be convoked within five months from the day of dissolution.

Article 46. No debate can be opened and no vote can be taken in either House of the Imperial Diet, unless not less than one-third of the whole number of Members thereof is present.

Article 47. Votes shall be taken in both Houses by absolute majority. In the case of a tie vote, the President shall have the casting vote.

Article 48. The deliberations of both Houses shall be held in public. The deliberations may, however, upon demand of the Government or by resolution of the House, be held in secret sitting.

Article 49. Both Houses of the Imperial Diet may respectively present addresses to the Emperor.

Article 50. Both Houses may receive petitions presented by subjects.

Article 51. Both Houses may enact, besides what is provided for in the present Constitution and in the Law of the Houses, rules necessary for the management of their internal affairs.

Article 52. No Member of either House shall be held responsible outside the respective Houses, for any opinion uttered or for any vote given in the House. When, however, a Member himself has given publicity to his opinions by public speech, by documents in print or in writing, or by any other similar means, he shall, in the matter, be amenable to the general law.

Article 53. The Members of both Houses shall, during the session, be free from arrest, unless with the consent of the House, except in cases of flagrant delicts, or of offenses connected with a state of internal commotion or with a foreign trouble.

Article 54. The Ministers of State and the Delegates of the Government may, at any time, take seats and speak in either House.

IV. THE MINISTERS OF STATE AND THE PRIVY COUNCIL

Article 55. The respective Ministers of State shall give their advice to the Emperor, and be responsible for it.

(2) All Laws, Imperial Ordinances, and Imperial Rescripts of whatever kind, that relate to the affairs of the state, require the countersignature of a Minister of State.

Article 56. The Privy Councillors shall, in accordance with the provisions for the organization of the Privy Council, deliberate upon important matters of State when they have been consulted by the Emperor.

V. THE JUDICATURE

Article 57. The Judicature shall be exercised by the Courts of Law according to law, in the name of the Emperor.

(2) The organization of the Courts of Law shall be determined by law.

Article 58. The judges shall be appointed from among those, who possess proper qualifications according to law.

(2) No judge shall be deprived of his position, unless by way of criminal sentence or disciplinary punishment.

(3) Rules for disciplinary punishment shall be determined by law.

Article 59. Trials and judgments of a Court shall be conducted publicly. When, however, there exists any fear, that such publicity may be prejudicial to peace and order, or to the maintenance of public morality, the public trial may be suspended by provisions of law or by the decision of the Court of Law.

Article 60. All matters that fall within the competency of a special Court, shall be specially provided for by law.

Article 61. No suit at law, which relates to rights alleged to have been infringed by the illegal measures of the administrative authorities, and which shall come within the competency of the Court of Administrative Litigation specially established by law, shall be taken cognizance of by Court of Law.

VI. FINANCE

Article 62. The imposition of a new tax or the modification of the rates (of an existing one) shall be determined by law.

(2) However, all such administrative fees or other revenue having the nature of compensation shall not fall within the category of the above clause.

(3) The raising of national loans and the contracting of other liabilities to the charge of the National Treasury, except those that are provided in the Budget, shall require the consent of the Imperial Diet.

Article 63. The taxes levied at present shall, in so far as they are not remodelled by a new law, be collected according to the old system.

Article 64. The expenditure and revenue of the State require the consent of the Imperial Diet by means of an annual Budget.

(2) Any and all expenditures overpassing the appropriations set forth in the Titles and Paragraphs of the Budget, or that are not provided for in the Budget, shall subsequently require the approbation of the Imperial Diet.

Article 65. The Budget shall be first laid before the House of Representatives.

Article 66. The expenditures of the Imperial House shall be defrayed every year out of the National Treasury, according to the present fixed amount for the same, and shall not require the consent thereto of the Imperial Diet, except in case an increase thereof is found necessary.

Article 67. Those already fixed expenditures based by the Constitution upon the powers appertaining to the Emperor, and such expenditures as may have arisen by the effect of law, or that appertain to the legal obligations of the Government, shall be neither rejected nor reduced by the Imperial Diet, without the concurrence of the Government.

Article 68. In order to meet special requirements, the Government may ask the consent of the Imperial Diet to a certain amount as a Continuing Expenditure Fund, for a previously fixed number of years.

Article 69. In order to supply deficiencies, which are unavoidable, in the Budget, and to meet requirements unprovided for in the same, a Reserve Fund shall be provided in the Budget.

Article 70. When the Imperial Diet cannot be convoked, owing to the external or internal condition of the country, in case of urgent need for the maintenance of public safety, the Government may take all necessary financial measures, by means of an Imperial Ordinance.

(2) In the case mentioned in the preceding clause, the matter shall be submitted to the Imperial Diet at its next session, and its approbation shall be obtained thereto.

Article 71. When the Imperial Diet has not voted on the Budget, or when the Budget has not been brought into actual existence, the Government shall carry out the Budget of the preceding year.

Article 72. The final account of the expenditures and revenues of the State shall be verified and confirmed by the Board of Audit, and it shall be submitted by the Government to the Imperial Diet, together with the report of verification of the said board.

(2) The organization and competency of the Board of Audit shall of determined by law separately.

VII. SUPPLEMENTARY RULES

Article 73. When it has become necessary in future to amend the provisions of the present Constitution, a project to the effect shall be submitted to the Imperial Diet by Imperial Order.

(2) In the above case, neither House can open the debate, unless not less than two-thirds of the whole number of Members are present, and no amendment can be passed, unless a majority of not less than two-thirds of the Members present is obtained.

Article 74. No modification of the Imperial House Law shall be required to be submitted to the deliberation of the Imperial Diet.

(2) No provision of the present Constitution can be modified by the Imperial House Law.

Article 75. No modification can be introduced into the Constitution, or into the Imperial House Law, during the time of a Regency.

Article 76. Existing legal enactments, such as laws, regulations, Ordinances, or by whatever names they may be called, shall, so far as they do not conflict with the present Constitution, continue in force.

(2) All existing contracts or orders, that entail obligations upon the Government, and that are connected with expenditure, shall come within the scope of Article 67.

Constitution of 1946

Japan is a constitutional monarchy. The current constitution was largely written by the Occupation authorities in 1945--1946. It replaced Japan's original constitution, which many people feel had flaws that made it unsuitable for a modern democracy. The original constitution was promulgated in 1889 (see page X.

THE CONSTITUTION OF JAPAN, 1946

Promulgated on November 3, 1946; Put into effect on May 3, 1947.

We, the Japanese people, acting through our duly elected representatives in the National Diet, determined that we shall secure for ourselves and our posterity the fruits of peaceful cooperation with all nations and the blessings of liberty throughout this land, and resolved that never again shall we be visited with the horrors of war through the action of government, do proclaim that sovereign power resides with the people and do firmly establish this Constitution. Government is a sacred trust of the people, the authority for which is derived from the people, the powers of which are exercised by the representatives of the people, and the benefits of which are enjoyed by the people. This is a universal principle of mankind upon which this Constitution is founded. We reject and revoke all constitutions, laws, ordinances, and rescripts in conflict herewith.

We, the Japanese people, desire peace for all time and are deeply conscious of the high ideals controlling human relationship, and we have determined to preserve our security and existence, trusting in the justice and faith of the peace-loving peoples of the world. We desire to occupy an honored place in an international society striving for the preservation of peace, and the banishment of tyranny and slavery, oppression and intolerance for all time from the earth. We recognize that all peoples of the world have the right to live in peace, free from fear and want.

We believe that no nation is responsible to itself alone, but that laws of political morality are universal; and that obedience to such laws is incumbent upon all nations who would sustain their own sovereignty and justify their sovereign relationship with other nations.

We, the Japanese people, pledge our national honor to accomplish these high ideals and purposes with all our resources.

I. THE EMPEROR

Article 1. The Emperor shall be the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people, deriving his position from the will of the people with whom resides sovereign power.

Article 2. The Imperial Throne shall be dynastic and succeeded to in accordance with the Imperial House law passed by the Diet.

Article 3. The advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state, and the Cabinet shall be responsible therefor.

Article 4. The Emperor shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in this Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government.

(2) The Emperor may delegate the performance of his acts in matters of state as may be provided by law.

Article 5. When, in accordance with the Imperial House law, a Regency is established, the Regent shall perform his acts in matter of state in the Emperor's name. In this case, paragraph one of the article will be applicable.

Article 6. The Emperor shall appoint the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet.

(2) The Emperor shall appoint the Chief Judge of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet.

Article 7. The Emperor, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, shall perform the following acts in makers of state on behalf of the people:

(i) Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, laws, cabinet orders and treaties;

(ii) Convocation of the Diet;

(iii)Dissolution of the House of Representatives;

(iv) Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet;

(v) Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, and of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers;

(vi) Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights;

(vii)Awarding of honors;

(viii) Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law;

(ix) Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers;

(x) Performance of ceremonial functions.

Article 8. No property can be given to, or received by, the Imperial House, nor can any gifts be made therefrom, without the authorization of the Diet.

II. RENUNCIATION OF WAR

Article 9. Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a mean of settling international disputes.

(2) In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.

CHAPTER III. RIGHTS ANO DUTIES OF THE PEOPLE

Article 10. The conditions necessary for being a Japanese national shall be determined by law.

Article 11. The people shall not be prevented from enjoying any of the fundamental human rights. These fundamental human rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution shall be conferred upon the people of this and future generations as eternal and inviolate rights.

Article 12. The freedoms and rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution shall be maintained by the constant endeavor of the people, who shall refrain from any abuse of these freedoms and rights and shall always be responsible for utilizing them for the public welfare.

Article 13. All of the people shall be respected as individuals. Their right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness shall, to the extent that it does not interfere with the public welfare, be the supreme consideration in legislation and in other governmental affairs.

Article 14. All of the people are equal under the law and there shall be no discrimination in political, economic or social relations because of race, creed, sex, social status or family origin.

(2) Peers and peerage shall not be recognized.

(3) No privilege shall accompany any award of honor, decoration or any distinction, nor shall any such award be valid beyond the lifetime of the individual who now holds or hereafter may receive it.

Article 15. The people have the inalienable right to choose their public officials and to dismiss them.

(2) All public officials are servants of the whole community and not of any group thereof.

(3) Universal adult suffrage is guaranteed with regard to the election of public officials.

(4) In all elections, secrecy of the ballot shall not be violated. A voter shall not be answerable, publicly or privately, for the choice he has made.

Article 16. Every person shall have the right of peaceful petition for the redress of damage, for the removal of public officials, for the enactment, repeal or amendment of law, ordinances or regulations and for other matters, nor shall any person be in any way discriminated against sponsoring such a petition.

Article 17. Every person may sue for redress as provided by law from the State or a public entity, in case he has suffered damage through illegal act of any public official.

Article 18. No person shall be held in bondage of any kind. Involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime, is prohibited

Article 19. Freedom of thought and conscience shall not be violated.

Article 20. Freedom of religion is guaranteed to all. No religious organization shall receive any privileges from the State nor exercise any political authority.

(2) No person shall be compelled to take part in any religious acts, celebration, rite or practice.

(3) The state and its organs shall refrain from religious education or any other religious activity.

Article 21. Freedom of assembly and association as well as speech, press and all other forms of expression are guaranteed.

(2) No censorship shall be maintained, nor shall the secrecy of any means of communication be violated.

Article 22. Every person shall have freedom to choose and change his residence and to choose his occupation to the extent that it does not interfere with the public welfare.

(2) Freedom of all persons to move to a foreign country and to divest themselves of their nationality shall be inviolate.

Article 23. Academic freedom is guaranteed.

Article 24. Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis.

(2) With regard to choice of spouse, property rights, inheritance, choice of domicile, divorce and other matters pertaining to marriage and the family, laws shall be enacted from the standpoint of individual dignity and the essential equality of the sexes.

Article 25. All people shall have the right to maintain the minimum standards of wholesome and cultured living.

(2) In all spheres of life, the State shall use its endeavors for the promotion and extension of social welfare and security, and of public health.

Article 26. All people shall have the right to receive an equal education correspondent to their ability, as provided by law.

(2) All people shall be obligated to have all boys and girls under their protection receive ordinary educations as provided for by law. Such compulsory education shall be free.

Article 27. All people shall have the right and the obligation to work.

(2) Standards for wages, hours, rest and other working conditions shall be fixed by law.

(3) Children shall not be exploited.

Article 28. The right of workers to organize and to bargain and act collectively is guaranteed.

Article 29. The right to own or to hold property is inviolable.

(2) Property rights shall be defined by law, in conformity with the public welfare.

(3) Private property may be taken for public use upon just compensation therefor.

Article 30. The people shall be liable to taxations as provided by law.

Article 31. No person shall be deprived of life or liberty, nor shall any other criminal penalty be imposed, except according to procedure established by law.

Article 32. No person shall be denied the right of access to the courts.

Article 33. No person shall be apprehended except upon warrant issued by a competent judicial officer which specifies the offense with which the person is charged, unless he is apprehended, the offense being committed.

Article 34. No person shall be arrested or detained without being at once informed of the charges against him or without the immediate privilege of counsel; nor shall he be detained without adequate cause; and upon demand of any person such cause must be immediately shown in open court in his presence and the presence of his counsel.

Article 35. The right of all persons to be secure in their homes, papers and effects against entries, searches and seizures shall not be impaired except upon warrant issued for adequate cause and particularly describing the place to be searched and things to be seized, or except as provided by Article 33.

(2) Each search or seizure shall be made upon separate warrant Issued by a competent judicial officer.

Article 36. The infliction of torture by any public officer and cruel punishments are absolutely forbidden.

Article 39. In all criminal cases the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial tribunal.

(2) He shall be permitted full opportunity to examine all witnesses, and he shall have the right of compulsory process for obtaining witnesses on his behalf at public expense.

(3) At all times the accused shall have the assistance of competent counsel who shall, if the accused is unable to secure the same by his own efforts, be assigned to his use by the State.

Article 38. No person shall be compelled to testify against himself.

(2) Confession made under compulsion, torture or threat, or after prolonged arrest or detention shall not be admitted in evidence.

(3) No person shall be convicted or punished in cases where the only proof against him is his own confession.

Article 39. No person shall be held criminally liable for an act which was lawful at the time it was committed, or of which he has been acquitted, nor shall he be placed in double jeopardy.

Article 40. Any person, in case he is acquitted after he has been arrested or detained, may sue the State for redress as provided by law.

IV. THE DIET

Article 41. The Diet shall be the highest organ of state power, and shall be the sole law-making organ of the State.

Article 42. The Diet shall consist of two Houses, namely the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors.

Article 43. Both Houses shall consist of elected members, representative of all the people.

(2) The number of the members of each House shall be fixed by law.

Article 44. The qualifications of members of both Houses and their electors shall be fixed by law. However, there shall be no discrimination because of race, creed, sex, social status, family origin, education, property or income.

Article 45. The term of office of members of the House of Representatives shall be four years. However, the term shall be terminated before the full term is up in case the House of Representatives is dissolved.

Article 46. The term of office of members of the House of Councillors shall be six years, and election for half the members shall take place every three years.

Article 47. Electoral districts, method of voting and other matters pertaining to the method of election of members of both Houses shall be fixed by law.

Article 48. No person shall be permitted to be a member of both Houses simultaneously.

Article 49. Members of both Houses shall receive appropriate annual payment from the national treasury in accordance with law.

Article 50. Except in cases provided by law, members of both Houses shall be exempt from apprehension while the Diet is in session, and any members apprehended before the opening of the session shall be freed during the term of the session upon demand of the House.

Article 51. Members of both Houses shall not be held liable outside the House for speeches, debates or votes cast inside the House.

Article 52. An ordinary session of the Diet shall be convoked once per year.

Article 53. The Cabinet may determine to convoke extraordinary sessions of the Diet. When a quarter or more of the total members of either house makes the demand, the Cabinet must determine on such convocation.

Article 54. When the House of Representatives is dissolved, there must be a general election of members of the House of Representatives within forty (40) days from the date of dissolution, and the Diet must be convoked within thirty (30) days from the date of the election.

(2) When the House of Representatives is dissolved, the House of Councillors is closed at the same time. However, the Cabinet may in time of national emergency convoke the House of Councillors in emergency session.

(3) Measures taken at such session as mentioned in the proviso of the preceding paragraph shall be provisional and shall become null and void unless agreed to by the House of Representatives within a period of ten (10) days after the opening of the next session of the Diet.

Article 55. Each House shall judge disputes related to qualifications of its members. However, in order to deny a seat to any member, it is necessary to pass a resolution by a majority of two-thirds or more of the members present.

Article 56. Business cannot be transacted in either House unless one third or more of total membership is present.

(2) All matters shall be decided, in each House, by a majority of those present, except as elsewhere provided in the Constitution, and in case of a tie, the presiding officer shall decide the issue.

Article 57. Deliberation in each House shall be public. However, a secret meeting may be held where a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present passes a resolution therefor.

(2) Each House shall keep a record of proceedings. This record shall be published and given general circulation, excepting such parts of proceedings of secret session as may be deemed to require secrecy.

(3) Upon demand of one-fifth or more of the members present, votes of the members on any matter shall be recorded in the minutes.

Article 58. Each house shall select its own president and other officials.

(2) Each House shall establish its rules pertaining to meetings, proceedings and internal discipline, and may punish members for disorderly conduct. However, in order to expel a member, a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present must pass a resolution thereon.

Article 59. A bill becomes a law on passage by both Houses, except as otherwise provided by the Constitution.

(2) A bill which is passed by the House of Representatives, and upon which the House of Councillors makes a decision different from that of the House of Representatives, becomes a law when passed a second time by the House of Representatives by a majority of two-thirds or more of the members present.

(3) The provision of the preceding paragraph does not preclude the House of Representatives from calling for the meeting of a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law.

(4) Failure by the House of Councillors to take final action within sixty (60) days after receipt of a bill passed by the House of Representatives, time in recess excepted, may be determined by the House of Representatives to constitute a rejection of the said bill by the House of Councillors.

Article 60. The Budget must first be submitted to the House of Representatives.

(2) Upon consideration of the budget, when the House of Councillors makes a decision different from that of the House of Representatives, and when no agreement can be reached even through a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law, or in the case of failure by the House of Councillors to take final action within thirty (30) days, the period of recess excluded, after the receipt of the budget passed by the House of Representatives, the decision of the House of Representatives shall be the decision of the Diet.

Article 61. The second paragraph of the preceding article applies also to the Diet approval required for the conclusion of treaties.

Article 62. Each House may conduct investigations in relation to government, and may demand the presence and testimony of witnesses, and the production of records.

Article 63. The Prime Minister and other Ministers of State may, at any time, appear in either House for the purpose of speaking on bills, regardless of whether they are members of the House or not. They must appear when their presence is required in order to give answers or explanations.

Article 64. The Diet shall set up an impeachment court from among the members of both Houses for the purpose of trying judges against whom removal proceedings have been instituted.

(2) Matters relating to impeachment shall be provided by law.

V. THE CABINET

Article 65. Executive power shall be vested in the Cabinet.

Article 66. The Cabinet shall consist of the Prime Minister, who shall be its head, and other Ministers of State, as provided for by law.

(2) The Prime Minister and other Minister of State must be civilians.

(3) The Cabinet, in the exercise of executive power, shall be collectively responsible to the Diet.

Article 67. The Prime Minister shall be designated from among the members of the Diet by a resolution of the Diet. This designation shall precede all other business.

(2) If the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors disagrees and if no agreement can be reached even through a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law, or the House of Councillors fails to make designation within ten (10) days, exclusive of the period of recess, after the House of Representatives has made designation, the decision of the House of Representatives shall be the decision of the Diet.

Article 68. The Prime Minister shall appoint the Ministers of State. However, a majority of their number must be chosen from among the members of the Diet.

(2) The Prime Minister may remove the Ministers of State as he chooses.

Article 69. If the House of Representatives passes a non-confidence resolution, or rejects a confidence resolution, the Cabinet shall resign en masse, unless the House of Representatives is dissolved with ten (10) days.

Article 70. When there is a vacancy in the post of Prime Minister, or upon the first convocation of the Diet after a general election of members of the House of Representatives, the Cabinet shall resign en masse.

Article 71. In the cases mentioned in the two preceding articles, the Cabinet shall continue its functions until the time when a new Prime Minister is appointed.

Article 72. The Prime Minister, representing the Cabinet, submits bills, reports on general national affairs and foreign relations to the Diet and exercises control and supervision over various administrative branches.

Article 73. The Cabinet, in addition to other general administrative functions, shall perform the following functions:

(i) Administer the law faithfully; conduct affairs of state;

(ii) Manage foreign affairs;

(iii)Conclude treaties. However, it shall obtain prior or, depending on circumstances, subsequent approval of the Diet;

(iv) Administer the civil service, in accordance with standards established by law;

(v) Prepare the budget, and present it to the Diet;

(vi) Enact cabinet orders in order to execute the provisions of this Constitution and of the law. However, it cannot include penal provisions in such cabinet orders unless authorized by such law.

(vii)Decide on general amnesty, special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights.

Article 74. All laws and cabinet orders shall be signed by the competent Minister of state and countersigned by the Prime Minister.

Article 75. The Ministers of state, during their tenure of office, shall not be subject to legal action without the consent of the Prime Minister. However, the right to take that action is not impaired hereby.

VI. JUDICIARY

Article 76. The whole judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court and in such inferior courts as are established by law.

(2) No extraordinary tribunal shall be established, nor shall any organ or agency of the Executive be given final judicial power.

(3) All judges shall be independent in the exercise of their conscience and shall be bound only by this Constitution and the laws.

Article 77. The Supreme Court is vested with the rule-making power under which it determines the rules of procedure and of practice, and of matters relating to attorneys, the internal discipline of the courts and the administration of judicial affairs.

(2) Public procurators shall be subject to the rule-making power of the Supreme Court.

(3) The Supreme Court may delegate the power to make rules for inferior courts to such courts.

Article 78. Judges shall not be removed except by public impeachment unless judicially declared mentally or physically incompetent to perform official duties. No disciplinary action against judges shall be administered by any executive organ or agency.

Article 79. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Judge and such number of judges as may be determined by law; all such judges excepting the Chief Judge shall be appointed by the Cabinet.

(2) The appointment of the judges of the Supreme Court shall be reviewed by the people at the first general election of members of the House of Representatives following their appointment, and shall be reviewed again at the first general election of members of the House of Representatives after a lapse of ten (10) years, and in the same manner thereafter.

(3) In cases mentioned in the foregoing paragraph, when the majority of the voters favors the dismissal of a judge, he shall be dismissed.

(4) Matters pertaining to review shall be prescribed by law.

(5) The judges of the Supreme Court shall of retired upon the attainment of the age as fixed by law.

(6) All such judges shall receive, at regular stated intervals, adequate compensation which shall not be decreased during their terms of office.

Article 80. The judges of the inferior courts shall be appointed by the Cabinet from a list of persons nominated by the Supreme Court. All such judges shall hold office for a term of ten (10) years with privilege of reappointment, provided that they shall be retired upon the attainment of the age as fixed by law.

(2) The judges of the inferior courts shall receive, at regular stated intervals, adequate compensation which shall not be decreased during their terms of office.

Article 81. The Supreme Court is the court of last resort with power to determine the constitutionality of any law, order, regulation or official act.

Article 82. Trials shall be conducted and judgment declared publicly.

(2) Where a court unanimously determines publicity to be dangerous to public order or morals, a trial may be conducted privately, but trials of political offenses, offenses involving the press or cases wherein the rights of people as guaranteed in Chapter III of this Constitution are in question shall always be conducted publicly.

VII. FINANCE

Article 83. The power to administer national finances shall be exercised as the Diet shall determine.

Article 84. No new taxes shall be imposed or existing ones modified except by law or under such conditions as law may prescribe.

Article 85. No money shall be expended, nor shall the State obligate itself, except as authorized by the Diet.

Article 86. Cabinet shall prepare and submit to the Diet for its consideration and decision a budget for each fiscal year.

Article 87. In order to provide for unforeseen deficiencies in the budget, a reserve fund may be authorized by the Diet to be expended upon the responsibility of the Cabinet.

(2) The Cabinet must get subsequent approval of the Diet for all payments from the reserve fund.

Article 88. All property of the Imperial Household shall belong to the State. All expenses of the Imperial Household shall be appropriated by the Diet in the budget.

Article 89. No public money or other property shall be expended or appropriated for the use, benefit or maintenance of any religious institution or association or for any charitable, educational benevolent enterprises not under the control of public authority.

Article 90. Final accounts of the expenditures and revenues of State shall be audited annually by a Board of Audit and submitted by the Cabinet to the Diet, together with the statement of audit, during the fiscal year immediately following the period covered.

(2) The organization and competency of the Board of Audit shall determined by law.

Article 91. At regular intervals and at least annually the Cabinet shall report to the Diet and the people on the state of national finances.

VIII. LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT

Article 92. Regulations concerning organization and operations of local public entities shall be fixed by law in accordance with the principle of local autonomy.

Article 93. The local public entities shall establish assemblies as their deliberative organs, in accordance with law.

(2) The chief executive officers of all local public entities, the members of their assemblies, and such other local officials as may be determined by law shall be elected by direct popular vote within their several communities.

Article 94. Local entities shall have the right to manage their property, affairs and administration and to enact their own regulations within law.

Article 95. A special law, applicable to one local public entity, cannot be enacted by the Diet without the consent of the majority of the voters of the local public entity concerned, obtained in accordance with law.

IX. AMENDMENTS

Article 96. Amendment to this Constitution shall be initiated by the Diet, through a concurring vote of two-thirds or more of all the members of each House and shall thereupon be submitted to the people for ratification which shall require the affirmative vote of a majority of all votes cast thereon, at special referendum or at such election as the Diet shall specify.

(2) Amendments when so ratified shall immediately be promulgated by the Emperor in the name of the people, as an integral part of this Constitution.

X. SUPREME LAW

Article 97. The fundamental human rights by this Constitution guaranteed to the people of Japan are fruits of the age-old struggle of man to be free; they have survived the many exacting tests for durability and are conferred upon this and future generations in trust, to be held for all time inviolate.

Article 98. This Constitution shall be the supreme law of the nation and no law, ordinance, imperial rescript or other act of government, or part thereof, contrary to the provisions hereof, shall have legal force or validity.

(2) The treaties concluded by Japan and established laws of nations shall be faithfully observed.

Article 99. The Emperor or the Regent as well as Ministers of State, members of the Diet, judges, and all other public officials have the obligation to respect and uphold this Constitution.

XI. SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS

Article 100. This Constitution shall be enforced as from the day when the period of six months will have elapsed counting from the day of its promulgation.

(2) The enactment of laws necessary for the enforcement of this Constitution the election of members of the House of Councillors and the procedure for the convocation of the Diet and other preparatory procedures for the enforcement of this Constitution may be executed before the day prescribed in the preceding paragraph.

Article 101. If the House of Councilors is not constituted before the effective date of this Constitution, the House of Representatives shall function as the Diet until such time as the House of Councilors shall be constituted.

Article 102. The term of office for half the members of the House of Councillors serving in the first term under this Constitution shall be three years. Members falling under this category shall be determined in accordance with law.

Article 103. The Ministers of State, members of the House of Representatives, and judges in office on the effective date of this Constitution, and all other public officials, who occupy positions corresponding to such positions as are recognized by this Constitution shall not forfeit their positions automatically on account of the enforcement of this Constitution unless otherwise specified by law. When, however, successors are elected or appointed under the provisions of this Constitution, they shall forfeit their positions as a matter of course.

See Also

Constitution of 1889 (pg. X),

Cryptology

The combined science of making and breaking codes, ciphers, and other methods of secret communication (hereafter refered to generally as codes, unless otherwise stated). The science of making codes is called “cryptography” and that of breaking them is called “cryptanalysis”.

There is not much cryptological history in Japan – prior to the twentieth century, only a few simple codes were used and there seems to have been no practice of cryptanalysis at all.

There seems to be almost no cryptology in Japan before the Warring States Period (senkokujidai), during which Uesugi Kenshin and Oda Nobunaga are believed to have used simple substitution ciphers. In the context of world cryptological history, this is very late. Julius Caesar reportedly used a substition cipher and even before that the Spartans of Greek were using a transposition cipher with a wooden stick as the key. Thus people in the Mediterranean had used both major ciphers systems (transposition and substitution) over 1,500 years before Uesugi was born.

Little is known about what steps the Meiji government took to secure their communications. From the Taishō Period, however, there is a bit more information. It is not until the Shōwa Period, however, that the Imperial Japanese Army decides to actively improve its cryptological abilities.

Superficially, they were successful. In reality, they were improving their abilities in the old-fashioned, pre-First World War, traditional cryptology. Unfortunately, the enemy they were fighting in China from the mid-1930s was also using traditional cryptological systems. This likely gave the Army the impression that their training was worthwhile. Unfortunately, the skills the Army honed in China would be of limited assistance in the Second World War, when Japan faced several enemies, all of whom were soon at the forefront of modern cryptology.

Japanese Cryptology From the 1500s to Meiji

Senkokujidai Daimyō

The cipher system that Uesugi used is basically a simple substitution usually known in English as a Polybius square or “checkerboard.” The i-ro-ha alphabet contains forty-eight letters, so a seven-by-seven square is used, with one of the cells left blank. The rows and columns are labeled with a number or a letter. In Table 8, the numbers start in the top left, as does the i-ro-ha alphabet. In practice these could start in any corner.


1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

i

ro

ha

ni

ho

he

to

2

chi

ri

nu

ru

wo

wa

ka

3

yo

ta

re

so

tsu

ne

na

4

ra

mu

u

i1

no

o

ku

5

ya

ma

ke

fu

ko

e

te

6

a

sa

ki

yu

me

mi

shi

7

e

hi

mo

se

su

n


Table 8 i-ro-ha Alphabet, 1-7 Checkerboard Cipher

To encipher, find the plaintext letter in the square and replace it with the number of that row and column. So using the square above, kougeki becomes 55 43 53 63 or 55 34 35 36 if the correspondents decided ahead of time on column-row order. The problem of what to do in the case of letters such as “ga,” “de,” and “pe” that do not appear in the i-ro-ha alphabet is avoided by using the base form of the letter instead – as above where “kougeki” becomes “koukeki.''2 Technically, this is a serious flaw because some messages may have two or more equally valid decipherments. To avoid this the encipherer may have had to rephrase messages.

The column and row headers do not have to be numbers. One common variation is to use letters. This was common in European cryptography and is found in the Uesugi cipher as well. However, the Japanese cipher had a twist that never seems to have been used in the West; using a the last 14 letters of a waka poem to fill in the row and column headers. Table 9 is from page 162 of [takagawa_2003] and gives an example of this, using “tsurenakumieshiakinoyufukure.''

This system of using a “checkerboard” to convert an alphabet into numbers or letters was described by Polybius over 2000 years ago. There are three main advantages to this system. First, converting letters into numbers allows for various mathematical transformations which are not possible or not as easy with letters – super-enciphering for example. Second, the checkerboard system reduces the total number of characters. Whether converting to numbers or letters, the Polybius square reduces 25 English letters3 to five characters. Uesugi's square reduces to seven. This reduction makes crytanalysis slightly more difficult than simple one-to-one substitution. Another benefit of the reduction in the number of letters is that it reduces the chance of error in communicating the message. The letters of the German ADGFX system in World War I were chosen because in morse code they are quite distinct and thus it was unlikely that an error in the morse code transmission would accidently turn one letter into another. This would have been important for a sengoku daimyō, for instance, if he experimented with sending coded messages over long distances by torches, flags, poles, or similar system.

re

ku

fu

yu

no

ki

a


e

a

ya

ra

yo

chi

i

tsu

hi

sa

ma

mu

ta

ri

ro

re

mo

ki

ke

u

re

nu

ha

na

se

yu

fu

i

so

ru

ni

ku

su

me

ko

no

tsu

wo

ho

mi

n

mi

e

o

ne

wa

he

e


shi

te

ku

na

ka

to

shi

Table 9 Checkerboard Cipher Using Waka Poem

Finally, although the checkerboard system doubles the length of messages, breaking each plaintext letter into two ciphertext letters allows for separate transformations on each of the halves. However, this does not seem to have been used much in American or European cryptology and Japanese cryptologists apparently did not use it at all.

It is not known how or even if Uesugi actually used the seven-by-seven checkerboard system. The scarcity of evidence makes it impossible to draw any firm conclusions but tentatively it seems that senkoku period daimyō did not have much use for cryptology. Of course it is possible that they did have their “black chambers” and that those chambers were shrouded in such secrecy that no hint of their existence escaped. This seems unlikely however. Several daimyō compiled codes of conduct or books of advice on governing for their offspring. Had cryptology been an important factor in the success of such men, they might be expected to pass that advantage along to their successor. The fact that they did not do so, in writing at least, does not prove anything but, in light of the other evidence – and lack of it – does make the existence of black chambers of the European sort seem unlikely.

(Did messengers carry the plaintext on paper or did they memorize it?)

The history of cryptology in Japan shows two things. First, the fact that substitution ciphers existed makes the failure of the Japanese to improve on the substitution cipher or to invent the transposition cipher much harder to explain. Second, the lack of a strong cryptographic tradition suggests – almost requires – a correspondingly weak cryptanalytic tradition. In fact there seems to be no cryptanalysis in Japanese history before the late 1800s.

The Bakumatsu and Early Meiji Periods

TBA

World War I As Turning Point

David Kahn identifies World War I as a major turning point for institutional cryptology. Before the war, breaking codes was an individual endeavor – one person wresting with the messages until one of them broke. After the war, successful cryptology against major nation states required large-scale organization.

Japanese cryptology does not seem to have been affected at all by the Great War. The government continued using insecure codes of the sort they had been using since the Meiji Restoration. As a result, in 1921 Japanese diplomacy suffered a major defeat at the Washington Naval Conference. Weak codes were the primary cause of that defeat.

The American “Black Chamber” and the Two-Letter Code

The American “Black Chamber” under Herbert O. Yardley broke Japanese diplomatic codes in 1919 – less than a year after starting operations – and the Black Chamber cryptanalysts were still reading Japanese diplomatic traffic in 1921 when the Washington Naval Conference took place. Thanks to Yardley's book The American Black Chamber, the failure of Japanese cryptography at the Conference is well known. Yardley's book gives a valuable look into the quality of the codes employed by the Japanese government in the years leading up to, and during, the Conference and thus is worth looking at in some detail.

Judging from Yardley's description of the codes he and his cryptanalysts broke, Japanese codes in 1919 were weak and barely deserved to be called “codes”. He might have exaggerated the difficulty of breaking the Japanese codes – British codebreakers thought Japanese codes at that time were so weak you almost didn't need a cryptanalyst.4

Analysis of the Two-Letter Code

The two-letter code Japanese diplomats were using in 1919 consisted of two English-letter groups. This allows for a maximum of 676 (26*26) groups. That is far too small for a diplomatic code in 1819 much less 1919. Worse, the Japanese cryptographers did not use all of the available groups because Yardley says that the groups were either vowel-consonant or consonant-vowel, with “y” counting as both. If Yardley is correct about this, it means that the Japanese cryptographers limited themselves to only 252 of the 676 possible groups.5 After using anywhere from 54 to 100 groups for the kana and ten groups for the numbers zero to nine, there were at most 188 unassigned code groups remaining.

Yardley made his original break into the code by realizing that wi ub po mo il re re os ok bo was a i ru ra n do do ku ri tsu (Ireland independence).6 The doubled re re suggests the do do of airurando dokuritsu. This guess is confirmed when he discovers that the recovered groups re ub bo work elsewhere for do i tsu (Germany).

The initial break into the code is further confirmed when as fy ok makes sense as o wa ri (stop). This is exactly how one breaks a simple substitution cipher --- letter frequencies and repetitions in the text suggest possible plaintext letters. The cryptanalyst plugs in those letters and sees what yields meaningful text and what does not. Meaningful text suggests new letters to try and the cryptanalyst starts the cycle over again.

As can be seen from the description of Yardley's original break into the code, groups were assigned to kana like “do” and “bo” which in Japanese are not part of the regular alphabet but are created from other kana by adding pronunciation marks. Providing for these non-alphabet kana would require at least another 25 and possibly as many as 60 more code groups – hence the range given above for code groups for the kana – leaving only about 150 groups for words, phrases, and names. French cryptanalysts were making and breaking bigger, better codes in the 1700s.7 One suspects the Japanese language gave Yardley more trouble than the code itself did.

Thus the Japanese diplomatic code in use in 1919 was extremely weak and fundamentally flawed: a diplomatic code that does not contain code groups for common geopolitical names and phrases but requires them to be spelled out cannot be considered strong. Spelling out “stop” is further evidence that the code was not well designed. Even if the Japanese cryptographers devoted their 188 groups to the 188 most common phrases, the fact that they only had 188 groups to work with meant that most of their encoded messages would actually be simple-substitution enciphered messages of the sort that people had been solving for hundreds of years.

Code Improvements in the Nineteen Twenties and Thirties

According to Yardley, the Japanese codes his Black Chamber broke in 1919 were improved by a Polish cipher expert about a year later. His exact words are [italics in original]:8

Now the Japanese had no intention of permitting us to rest on our laurels, for from 1919 until the spring of 1920 they introduced eleven different codes.

We learned that they had employed a Polish cipher expert to revise their code and cipher systems. It took all our skill to break the new codes that this man produced, but by now we had developed a technique for the solution of Japanese codes that could read anything. Theoretically the Japanese codes were now more scientifically constructed; practically they were easier to solve than the first code, although some of them contained as many as twenty-five thousand kana, syllables and words.

The Polish cryptographer seemed to specialize on army codes, for the Japanese Military Attaché's codes suddenly became more difficult than those of any other branch of the Japanese Government.

Yardley was right about a Polish expert visiting Japan but he was mistaken about the timing. The Japanese army did bring in a Polish expert, Jan Kowalefsky, but he did not arrive in Japan until September of 1924. If Japanese codes improved significantly between 1919 and 1924, as Yardley claims, the improvements were the work of Japanese cryptologists.

An interesting possibility, which is ripe for further research, is that Japanese cryptologists studied one or more of the books on codes and ciphers that were occasionally published in Europe and America. For example, Parker Hitt's 1916 book Manual for the Solution of Military Ciphers was hugely popular, selling around 16,000 copies in America. Also, Japanese military attachés might have been aware that Winston Churchill, in his 1923 The World Crisis, admitted that Britain had read German naval messages during World War I.

It is possible that Yardley is simply wrong and Japanese codes did not improve significantly between 1919 and 1924. Kahn found that one improvement Yardley mentions – three letter code groups mixed in with two letter groups – was not actually present in the Japanese telegram that Yardley claimed it was.9

Japanese cryptographers supposedly improved their codes through sectioning – breaking the message into parts and rearranging them prior to encoding. This buries stereotypical openings and closings, which makes it harder for cryptanalysts to make initial breaks into a code by guessing at probable words. The technique is known as bisecting, trisecting, tetrasecting, etc. depending on how many pieces the text is broken into. Sectioning was not a new or revolutionary technique in the 1910s. [Although proof of this would be nice.]

If, as Yardley claims, some Japanese codes did have as many as 25,000 code groups at the time of the Washington Naval Conference, it would indicate a healthy appreciation of cryptological realities. Cryptographers have long known that bigger codes are better – all else being equal, a 25,000 group code is stronger than a 2,500 group code. In fact, many commercial code books as far back as the 1850s had 50,000 groups – but government bean counters are often reluctant to pay for the production of large codebooks. Thus accountants limited the size and thus strength of government and military codes for many years. To be fair, the secure production, storage, and distribution of codebooks is not easy nor is it cheap.

However, it seems unlikely that the Japanese government was using codebooks with 25,000 groups in the early 1920s. Jumping from the weak code used for the Washington Naval Conference to a book code of 25,000 in just a few years seems too fast, especially without some external indication that there codes had been compromised. Further, as shown below, even in 1926 the Army's top cryptologist was developing a cipher system that had only about 2,500 groups and those were actually just 10 charts of about 250 groups each.

Thus, the likely situation between the Washington Naval Conference an the mid-1920s is not that of a Polish officer helping to make Japanese codes much more secure. Rather, Japanese cryptographers were working to bring their codes up to the level of other major governments.

The Polish cipher expert, Jan Kowalefsky, might not have helped improve Japanese codes before the Washington Naval Conference but he did have a strong influence on Japanese cryptography between the conference and World War II. He trained what seems to be the first generation of professional Japanese cryptographers.

Jan Kowalefsky

Japanese authors have identified two events that influenced the Japanese army's decision to invite a foreigner to improve their cryptology.

The first was an incident during the Siberian Intervention. The Japanese army came into possession of some Soviet diplomatic correspondence, but their cryptanalysts were unable decipher the messages. Someone suggested asking the Polish military to try cryptanalyzing them. It took the Poles less than a week to break the code and read the messages.10

The second event also involved a failure to decipher intercepts. Starting in 1923, the Army began intercepting European and American diplomatic radio communications. Interception was difficult but the task of deciphering intercepted messages proved too much for the Army cryptanalysts.11

These two failures convinced the leaders of the Japanese army that they needed some outside help and for geopolitical reasons, they decided to turn to the Polish military. Poland had fought the Soviet Union in 1920 and the Japanese believed the Poles would be receptive to the idea of teaching someone on the Soviet Union's opposite flank how to read Soviet codes.

Learning from Warsaw and Then in Warsaw

The Japanese Army could not have asked for more distinguished teachers. Polish cryptanalysts would later break early versions of the German Enigma machine in 1932 and their work jump-started the French and British efforts to break later, more complicated, Enigma machines. In the 1920s and 1930s it is accurate to say that Polish cryptanalysts were some of the best in the world.

The arrangements were made and on 7 September 1924, Captain Jan Kowalefsky arrived in Yokohama.12 Kowalefsky taught a three month joint Army-Navy course13 to at least seven officers: four from the Army and three from the Navy.14

When the course finished, someone suggested that the novice cryptologists get some practical experience working with the Polish cryptologists in Poland.15 The Japanese students would go to Poland with their teacher. Arrangements were made and a study-abroad program of sorts was started. Five officers left for Poland with Kowalefsky late in 1924 (Taishō 13).16 They spent a year working in the Polish Army's Bureau of Ciphers before returning to Japan and taking up positions in the Japanese Army Cipher Department.17

Takagawa and Hiyama both assert that each year for about the next fourteen (until Shōwa 14) years, two Japanese Army officers traveled to Warsaw for a year of cryptological training.18 Neither Smith nor Budiansky mentions Kowalefsky or anything about Japanese officers studying in Poland. Yardley mentions the “Polish expert” working for the Army but gets the timing wrong. In English, only Kahn actually gives this expert a name and provides some more details.

Discrepencies

Interestingly, Kahn writes that Kowalefsky had been in Japan from about 1920, when he was supposedly helping improve Japanese codes, and was still there in 1925 to teach at a new Navy code school. That is, Kahn has Kowalefsky working for the Navy, not the Army. Japanese sources make it clear that both Army and Navy officers attended Kowalefsky's three month course, so some confusion is possible. However, Yardley wrote, correctly, that Kowalefsky worked for the Army but was wrong about the year since he claimed that the Polish expert had arrived in 1920. Yardley's error might explain why Kahn had Kowalefsky arriving in the wrong year but nothing in Yardley suggests that Kowalefsky ever worked for the Navy.

Although they do mention Kowalefsky (if not by name) neither Kahn nor Yardley mentions anything about Japanese cryptologists training in Poland or even Kowalefsky returning home. Thus, probably the most widely read English books on cryptological history are possibly missing a large and important part of the development of professional cryptology in Japan – if the Japanese sources are correct. If the Japanese sources for this history can be confirmed, it would be an important addition to the understanding of Japanese cryptology leading up to World War II. Polish cryptanalysts were very good and if they tutored the Japanese for almost fifteen years, it makes the Japanese failure to break most of the Allied codes during the war much more interesting.

The Two-Letter, Ten-Chart Code

Hyakutake Harukichi was among the first group of Japanese officers to study in Poland and on his return was made the chief of the code section of the third department of the army general staff. This was in 1926. Naturally enough, one of his first concerns was strengthening Army codes. He started by designing a new system to replace a four-letter code used by military attachés that had been in use since around 1918. The replacement was the two-letter, ten-chart code that Yardley mentions but mistakenly attributes to Kowalefsky in about 1920.19 Yardley gives the following description of Hyakutake's new system and its effectiveness:20 ZZZ

This new system was elaborate and required ten different codes. The Japanese would first encode a few words of their message in one code, then by the use of an ``indicator'' jump to another code and encode a few words, then to still another code, until all ten had been used in the encoding of a single message.

Messages encoded in this manner produced a most puzzling problem, but after several months of careful analysis, I discovered the fact that the messages were encoded in ten different systems. Having made this discovery, I quickly identified all the ``indicators.'' From this point on it was not difficult to arrive at a solution.

Yardley also describes the Japanese system of sectioning their messages but does not make it clear if this applies to the two-letter, ten-chart code. Takagawa's description of Hyakutake's code does not mention any sectioning but otherwise closely matches Yardley's account.\footnote{Takagawa p. 178-180} It is possible then that sectioning was not a part of Hyakutake's new system. Which code systems involved sectioning and when the systems were used is not clear. Interestingly, Michael Smith mentions in \booktitle{The Emperor's Codes} that British codebreakers were surprised by the appearance of sectioning in Japanese codes around 1937.\footnote{Smith, p. 55} The British had been reading some Japanese codes since at least as far back as the Washington Naval Conference. If they did not see sectioning in Army codes until 1937, in which code did Yardley see sectioning during his time at America's Black Chamber? Further research is necessary to answer that question.

It is clear from Yardley's description that Hyakutake's new system was not very effective. The system used 10 charts, each with 26 rows and columns labeled from \textsc{a} to \textsc{z}. This gives 626 two-letter code groups. Most words and phrases will not be in the code and must be spelled out in kana. In this respect it is similar to, but larger than, the first Japanese code that Yardley broke in 1919. The difference is that this time however there were ten codes instead of just one.

Basically, Hyakutake created a poly-code system where the code changes every few words. This is just a code version of a polyalphabetic substitution cipher. Polyalphabetic ciphers use several different enciphering alphabets and change between them at some interval, usually after every letter. The strength of a polyalphabetic cipher comes from how many alphabets it uses to encipher, how often it switches between them, and how it switches between them (at random or following some pattern for example). The Vigenere is probably the most famous example of a polyalphabetic substitution cipher.\footnote{Kahn, p. 146--149} The famous cipher machines of World War II encipher in a polyalphabetic system. Their strength came from the enormous number of well-mixed alphabets that they used and the fairly random way of switching between them.

With a bit of luck, experienced cryptanalysts have been able to break polyalphabetic ciphers for centuries. From the late 1800s they did not even need luck --- Auguste Kerckhoffs published a general solution for polyalphabetic ciphers in 1883 in his book \booktitle{La Cryptographie militaire}.\footnote{Kahn, p. 233}

So although Hyakutake's new code system was original,\footnote{I cannot find any references to any other system of this nature.} the fundamental idea underlying the system was well known, as were its weaknesses. With only 626 code groups, it is more cipher than code. As mentioned above, the ten different code charts just make it a polyalphabetic cipher --- one with only ten ``alphabets.'' Methods like Kerckhoffs' superimposition\footnote{Kahn, p. 236--238} can be used to convert several polyalphabetically encoded messages into ten monoalphabetically encoded message chucks. Chunks which are very easily solved. It is not surprising that the members of Yardley's Black Chamber broke the code in a few months.

The use of ten charts may had been an illusory complication --- rather than improve the security of the code, it probably made the code weaker. If, instead of ten different code groups for 626 terms, Hyakutake had used the ten charts (with slight modification to make each group unique) to provide code groups for closer to six thousand terms, the code would have been much stronger.

Including more terms means that fewer have to be spelled out in kana --- which is the whole point of using a code. Further, the reduction in duplication allows more flexibility in assigning homophones. Instead of ten groups for each letter, word, or phrase, each could receive homophones based on its frequency of occurrence. For example, the cryptographer can assign an appropriately large number of homophones to high-frequency letters and words like ``n,'' ``shi,'' and ``owari'' and only one or two code groups to lower frequency elements.

Likewise, if code groups were used to indicate a switch to a new chart, this could also have weakened the code unnecessarily. In fact, Yardley specifically mentions it as making the codes easier to cryptanalyze. Generally speaking, substitution systems switch alphabets as often as possibly because that provides the best security. Their strength lies in how many alphabets they use and how randomly they switch between them.

So switching charts after every couple of words is not as secure as switching after every word. Also important for security is how the cryptographer switches between the charts. If Hyakutake's system required the code clerk to switch codes charts pseudo-randomly, that would provide more security than requiring a set sequence of changes. This is more important if the charts are derived from one another in some predictable manner. If, for example, the plaintext \texttt{battle engaged} is \textsc{aa} on chart one, \textsc{ab} on chart 2, and \textsc{ac} on chart 3, then switching between the charts in order will pose much less difficulty for the cryptanalyst than using the charts in a more random order.

Regular polyalphabetic substitution ciphers often rely on code words to determine alphabet changes. Each letters of the code work references a different alphabet. With the ten charts of Hyakutake's system, a code number would be easy to use for pseudo-random changes --- ``301934859762'' means encode the first word or phrase with the third table, the second word or phrase with the tenth (zeroth) table, etc. The thirteenth word or phrase would be encoded with the third table again. Of course to give maximum security this code number needs to be changed frequently.

Unfortunately, there is no information on how tables were changed except for Yardley's vague ``until all ten had been used in the encoding of a single message,'' quoted above.\footnote{Yardley, p. 184} This unfortunately says nothing of the order the charts are used in.

Hara Hisashi's Pseudo-Random Number Code

Hara Hisashi became head of the code section of the Seventh Division sometime after 1932 and was later transfered to the Third Section of the Army General Staff.\footnote{Takagawa, p. 180} Sometime between then and 1940, Hara devised a system that used a pseudo-random number additive to superencipher the three number code the Army already had in service.

Neither Takagawa nor Hiyama provide details about when this three-number code system was adopted for Army communications. A three-number code has a maximum of $10^3$, or 1000 groups --- which is still too small for a strategic code and a far cry from the 25,000 that Yardley claims some Japanese codes had in the 1920s. However, it was a two-part code --- an important improvement.

Two-Part Codes

Code books contain two lists --- one of code groups and one of plaintext letters, words, and phrases. Someone encoding a message looks up the words in the plaintext list and substitutes the corresponding code group. Obviously it is important for that person's sanity that the plaintext be in some sort of order so words can be looked up easily. Since the system is similar for decoding --- look up the code group and substitute the plaintext --- it is equally important to have the code groups in order as well. With a one-part code, both lists are in alphabetical (or numerical) order. This means that you can encode and decode using the same book.

It also makes it easier for the enemy to break the code because once they realize they are dealing with a one-part code, they can use known groups to draw conclusions about unknown groups. For example, if the enemy knows that \textsc{aabbc} is \texttt{Antwerp} and \textsc{aabbz} is \texttt{available}, they will know that \textsc{aabbm} cannot be \texttt{Tokyo}.

A two-part code mixes the lists, making the code stronger by avoiding the problem described above. The drawback is that you now need two books. One, for encoding, has the plaintext in order to make encoding easy and the other, for decoding, has the code groups in order. Hence the name ``two-part'' code. The increase in security usually outweighs the increase in size and extra security concerns.

Antoine Rossignol invented the two-part code around 1650 or so.\footnote{Kahn, p. 160--161} The idea could hardly be considered new or secret by the 1900s, so again it is surprising to see Japanese cryptographers taking so long to begin using a common cryptographic method.

Random Numbers

The ``one-time pad'' system is only cipher system that is totally secure. It uses random numbers to encode the plaintext. If the numbers are truly random and the encoder never reuses those numbers, the encoded message cannot be broken. Fortunately for cryptologists, random numbers are very difficult to come up with and creating, distributing, and managing pads for more than a handful of correspondents is beyond the capabilities of even most governments.

Using random numbers for cryptography was first done around 1917 for securing teletype communications. It proved unfeasible for the reasons mentioned above. By the mid-1920s however, the German government was using one-time pads for diplomatic correspondence.\footnote{Kahn, p. 402--403} They had learned their lessons from World War I and were determined not to let it happen again.

Hara devised a system that used random numbers to superencipher Japanese army codes. Possibly because of the logistical difficulties inherent in the one-time pad system, Hara's system used tables of pseudo-random numbers. The encipherer had to indicate where in the table he (or much less likely at the time, she) did this by hiding the row and column headers from the table in the message.

This system is not new. Diplomats and armies started superenciphering with additives sometime during or soon after the First World War and by the 1920s it was common. German diplomats in Paris were using, shortly after the First World War, a codebook of 100,000 groups superenciphered \emph{twice} from a book of 60,000 additive groups!\footnote{Budiansky, p. 55} It would be very surprising if after five to ten years of training with the Poles, Japanese Army cryptologists were not already familiar with superenciphering with additive tables.

Superencipherment is fairly strong. It can be, and was, broken, but it is very hard to do. With the exception of the one-time pad, which will keep its secrets until the end of time, any code or cipher can be broken. All that is required is sufficient material. All that can be expected of a code or cipher system is that by the time the enemy breaks it, the information in the message is no longer useful. This is just a cryptographic fact of life.

Hara's pseudo-random code system, like every additive system other than the one-time pad, can be broken. Eventually someone, somewhere will use overlapping parts of the additive charts. The first thing the cryptanalyst does is identify where in the message the starting point of the chart (the ``indicator'') is hidden --- this allows the messages that are enciphered with the same sections of the number charts to be lined up and the additives stripped off.\footnote{Budiansky, p. 78--81, has an interesting example of the process.}

Hara's Pseudo-Random Number Generator

Perhaps realizing the gap between theory and practice, Hara devised a small system for generating pseudo-random numbers that could be used by units whose charts were outdated and which could not be supplied with new ones. This suggests that the cryptographers had real world experience with cryptology under battlefield conditions.

The system is simple, as it no doubt was intended to be. It requires a small chart of random numbers. Instead of using the numbers as additives, the encipherer uses two or more of them to create a much longer number. That number is then used to superencipher the message. Figure 3 shows how this is done; the numbers are taken from Takagawa.\footnote{Takagawa, p. 181}

831728

8

3

1

7

2

8

8

3

1

7

2

8

8

3

1

96837

9

6

8

3

7

9

6

8

3

7

9

6

8

3

7

Result

7

9

9

0

9

7

4

1

4

4

1

4

6

6

8

Table 10Creating a Pseudo-Random Number from Two Other Numbers

When the numbers are added, any tens units are dropped. Thus 8 + 9 = 7. If the encipherer uses a six-digit number and a five-digit number, the resulting pseudo-random number will repeat after 30 digits. Hiyama gives an example of this system using a seven-digit and a five-digit number, which repeats after 35 digits.\footnote{Hiyama, p. 242}

This pseudo-random number system is much weaker than the usual system of superencipherment but as an emergency backup system it would have been adequate and certainly better than using a transposition or simple substitution cipher. Like any other cipher system, breaking a pseudo-random number system just requires a sufficient amount of intercepted ciphertext.

The State of Japanese Army Cryptology around 1941

Hyakutake's two-letter, ten-chart system was exceedingly weak. It might have made a decent tactical field code --- it is simple to use, requires only the paper charts and a pencil, and is easily changed. As a code for military attachés around the globe, however, Hyakutake's system was much too weak. It was basically a slightly improved version of the Foreign Ministry's two-letter code that Yardley broke in 1919 and possibly not as strong as the four-letter code it replaced.

Kahn, Smith, and Budiansky all make it clear that superenciphering and using pseudo-random additives were nothing new even in the 1920's --- Kahn says that enciphered code was ``the customary method for diplomatic communications.''\footnote{Kahn, p. 402} A system using random numbers to superencipher messages was not revolutionary in the 1930s.

Thus, Hara's system was not new and does not seem to have been any better than similar systems long in use in other countries. Nevertheless, devising and implementing the Army's system was an important accomplishment and it is possible that Hara was responsible for it. An interesting topic for further research would be why this system was chosen instead of machine ciphers. Was the random number system chosen for non-cryptological reasons? Were the Army cryptanalysts good enough to understand that random numbers were more secure, when used correctly, than cipher machines?

There were several books available that hint at ways to break cipher machines. William Friedman's \booktitle{The Index of Coincidence and Its Applications to Cryptography} was revolutionary; the addition of advanced mathematical, especially statistical, methods to the cryptological toolkit made traditional cryptographic systems obsolete and machine systems breakable.\footnote{Kahn p. 376} So it is possible that the Japanese cryptanalysts knew that cipher machines were, in theory at least, breakable.

The Polish military realized early on that machine enciphering would change the science of cryptology and from 1929 employed mathematicians to work on cryptanalysis. However, as the goal of Japanese-Polish cryptographic cooperation was to train the Japanese side to break Russian codes, there would have been no need for the Polish cryptologists to reveal methods of breaking machines the Russians were not using. Teaching the Japanese the latest and greatest methods would not be of any use against Russian codes and would only risk the Germans finding out and changing their codes. The Poles thus had a strong incentive to teach the Japanese just as much as they needed to know.

The Japanese army was aware of machine systems; at the Hague in 1926, a Japanese military attaché saw a demonstration of the Model B1 cipher machine from Aktiebolaget Cryptograph.\footnote{Kahn, p. 425} In fact, in the early 1930s, both the Japanese Navy and the Foreign Ministry switched to machine systems for their most secret messages. The fact that those systems seem to have been developed in Japan suggests that there were knowledgeable cryptographers in Japan. Which suggests that perhaps there were other, non-cryptographic reasons why the Army continued to use chart and book based systems. Perhaps further research into the cultural and institutional aspects of inter-war cryptology in Japan could uncover those reasons.

Conclusions

Several curious facts stand out in this cursory overview of Japanese cryptological history. One is that the Japanese government did not bring in an outside expert to help with their codes until 1924. Considering all the other \jpnterm{gaikokujin oyatoi} (hired foreigners) brought in to assist with ``modernization'' in the Meiji Period, it is striking that such an important field as cryptology would be ignored.

This suggests that the Japanese government in the first decades of the twentieth century did not really understand the importance of cryptology for protecting communications. Such an attitude would hardly have been limited to Japan in the 1910s or 1920s --- despite their success at the Washington Naval Conference, and later public chastisement by Yardley, American codes remained weak right up to the early 1940s. However, even America, thanks to its ties to Europe, had a cryptological history and a reserve of talented people who understood the problems and the solutions. Japan does not seem to have had anyone like Yardley, much less a William Friedman.

The Japanese Army cryptologists, despite training with the Polish military for over ten years, originally developed substandard codes. Hara's system shows significant improvement and demonstrates an understanding of cryptography at at least the same level as practiced by other major world powers in the early 1940s.

Currency

Bills

Yen

Graphic (page #)

Size (mm)

10000

Fukuzawa Yukichi ()

76x160

10000

Fukuzawa Yukichi ()

76x160

10000

Shōtoku-tennō ()

84x174

5000

Nitobe Inazo ()

76x155

5000

Nitobe Inazo ()

76x155

5000

Shōtoku-tennō ()

80x169

2000

Shurei-mon ()

76x154

1000

Natsume Soseki ()

76x150

1000

Natsume Soseki ()

76x150

1000

Natsume Soseki ()

76x150

1000

Natsume Soseki ()

76x150

1000

Itō Hirobumi ()

76x164

1000

Itō Hirobumi ()

76x164

1000

Shōtoku-tennō ()

76x164

500

Iwakura Tomomi ()

72x159

Table 11 Portraits on Japanese Bills

Yen

From

To

Serial No.

10000

Nov 1, 1984

present

Black

10000

Dec 1, 1993

present

Brown

10000

Dec 1, 1958

Jan 4, 1986


5000

Nov 1, 1984

present

Black

5000

Dec 1, 1993

present

Brown

5000

Oct 1, 1957

Jan 4, 1984


2000

Jul 19, 2000

present


1000

Nov 1, 1984

present

Black

1000

Nov 1, 1990

present

Blue

1000

Dec 1, 1993

present

Brown

1000

Apr 3, 2000

present

Dark Green

1000

Nov 1, 1963

Jan 4, 1986

Black

1000

Jul 1, 1976

Jan 4, 1986

Blue

1000

Jan 7, 1950

Jan 4, 1965


500

Nov 1, 1969

Apr 1, 1994


Table 12 Dates of Use for Japanese Bills

Coins

Daido Masashige – Dutch Learning

Daidoji Masashige

Daidō

Nengō: 806--809

Daiei

Nengō: 1521--1527.

aka Teiei.

Daigo-tennō

The 60th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 18 Jan. 885 to 29 Sept. 930.

Reigned 3 July 897 to 22 Sept. 930.

Daiji

Nengō: 1126--1130.

aka Taiji.

Daimyō

Japanese: 大名

Title given to powerful lords. Literally means `big names' in English. During the Tokugawa shōgunate, any lord who controlled lands that produced more than 10,000 koku was considered a daimyō.

See Also

Tokugawa Shōgunate (pg. X), Koku (pg. X),

Daitsuji-yama

Dan Takuma

Lived 1 Aug. 1858 to 5 March 1932 (assassinated)

Was a member of the Iwakura Mission.

Studied mining in the U.S. and taught at Tokyo University after his return. Later worked at the government-owned Miike coal mine; joined Mitsui when they bought the mine from the government. He rose in the Mitsui ranks and eventually was in charge of all of their mining operations.

Became a well-known and influential businessman.

Assassinated by Hishinuma (Yonuma?) Goro, a member of the Blood League (double check that), on 5 March 1932.

See Also

Blood League (pg. X), Hishinuma Goro (pg. X), Iwakura Mission (pg. X), Miike Coal Mine (pg. X), Mining (pg. X), Mitsui (pg. X), Tokyo University (pg. X),

Date Family

Daimyō family from Mutsu (pg XXX).

Descended from the Fujiwara (pg XXX).

Date Harumune

Lived 1519 to 1577.

Date Masamune

Lived 3 Aug. 1567 to 24 Aug. 1636.

Date Munenari

aka Date Muneki

Lived 1 Aug. 1818 to 20 Dec. 1892

A tozama daimyō who held Uwajima (100,000 koku, pg XXX). He was a reformer who implimented several European ideas in his military and han administration. Originally influential in the Meiji government, Date faded away after the abolition of the han.

Date Shigezane

Lived 1568 to 1646.

Date Tadamune

Died 1658.

Tadamune was the son of Date Masamune.

Date Terumune

Lived 1543 to 1585.

Diet

Japan's Legislative Body (helpful, ain't it)

Dodo Family

Doihara Kenji

Doi Kiyonaga

Doi Sanehira

Doi Toshikatsu

Lived 1573 to 1644.

The son of Mizuno Nobumoto (pg XXX). Adopted by Doi Toshimasa.

Toshikatsu was an important advisor to Tokugawa Iemitsu (pg XXX).

Doi Toshimasa

Doolittle Raid

On the morning of 18 April 1942, 16 B-25 bombers took off from the United States aircraft carrier Hornet. Their target: Japan. Thirteen of them dropped their loads on Tokyo while the remaining three attacked Nagoya. Physical damage was slight but the attacks did shock many Japanese, who had assumed their was no way the enemy could get to them.

On the surface the Doolittle raid was a suicide mission – there was absolutely no way the planes could get back to the Hornet and even if they could, the B-25 was not really a carrier-based plane. Taking off proved possible but landing on a carrier was not an option. In view of this, the official plan called for the pilots to head for friendly bases in China after attacking Japan. A couple of planes even made it.

(Add the details on what happened next!!)

Doshisha University

Dutch Learning

aka Rangaku

Dutch learning is a general term for Western science and medicine that filtered into Japan through the Dutch during the Tokugawa period.

During the period of sakoku, “Western” was closely associated with “Christian” and since Christianity was banned the effect was that most everything Western was banned. As time went on, the Japanese fell technologically further and further behind the West. The Dutch at Dejima tried to make the Bakufu aware of this. In general the Bakufu wasn't interested---although Shōgun Yoshimune did loosen restrictions on foreign books in 1720. Several samurai took an interest in learning some of the more obviously practical arts from the Dutch. In medicine, for example, it was an easy thing to compare a real corpse with the drawings in Western medical books and those in Chinese / Japanese medical books. The Western ones were more accurate and the cures contained in them could soon be seen to be more effective. More abstract pursuits also had some followers.

Echigo Province – Etō Shinpei

Echigo Province

A province in north-central Japan, on the Sea of Japan side. It bordered on Uzen, Iwashiro, Kōtsuke, Shinano, and Etchū. Today the area is known as Niigata Prefecture.

(IIRC, Niigata includes Sado Island but Echigo did not --- must double check this)

See Also

Etchū Province (pg. X), Iwashiro Province (pg. X), Kōzuke Province (pg. X), Niigata Prefecture (pg. X), Shinano Province (pg. X), Uzen Province (pg. X),

Echizen Province

A province in central Honshū, on the Sea of Japan side. It borders on Kaga, Hida, Mino, Ōmi, and Wakasa. The area is today part of Fukui Prefecture.

See Also

Fukui Prefecture (pg. X), Hida Province (pg. X), Kaga Province (pg. X), Mino Province (pg. X), Ōmi Province (pg. X), Wakasa Province (pg. X),

Edo

The Tokugawa shōgunate was centered in Edo. As a result, what had been a small village eventually became, during the Tokugawa period, one of the biggest cities in the world.

After the Meiji Restoration (pg XXX), the leaders of the new imperial government moved the Emperor into Tokugawa castle in Edo and renamed the city Tokyo, the `Eastern Capital'.

Ehime Prefecture

Area: 5,675 km2 (1995)

Capital: Matsuyama

Population: 1,520,000 (1996)

Eichō

Nengō: 1096--1096.

Eien

Nengō: 987--988.

Eihō

Nengō: 1081--1083.

Eiji

Nengō: 1141—1141.

Eikan

Nengō: 983—984.

Eikyō

Nengō: 1429—1440.

Eikyū

Nengō: 1113--1117.

Eiman

Nengō: 1165--1165.

Einin

Nengō: 1293--1298.

Eiroku

Nengō: 1558--1569.

Eiryaku

Nengō: 1160--1160.

Eisai

Lived 20 April 1141 to 1215.

Eisai was a monk who went to China more than once and is credited with introducing tea to Japan. He was also responsible for building and directing several Buddhist temples of the Zen school.

Eishō

Nengō: 1046--1052.

aka Eijō.

Eiso

Nengō: 989--989.

Eitoku

Nengō of the Northern Dynasty: 1381--1383.

Eiwa

Nengō of the Northern Dynasty: 1375--1378.

Ejiri Castle

Embun

Nengō of the Northern Dynasty: 1356--1360.

Emperors

Many of the emperors prior to about 500 A.D. are mythological. The Historical and Geographical Dictionary of Japan entry for the `Nihon-ki' (pg 448) has a good summary of how unreliable the info on early emperors is.

The Chronological List of Emperors is now on page 389.

Empō

Nengō: 1673--1680.

Enchō

Nengō: 923--930.

Endo Motonobu

Engen

Nengō: 1336--1339.

Engi

Nengō: 901--922.

Enjoji Nobutane

Died 1584.

Samurai who fought and died at the Battle of Okinawate (pg XXX).

Enkei

Nengō: 1308—1310.

Also known as Enkyō. See that entry on page XXX for more information. (but there isn't much there at the moment)

Enkyō (1308)

Nengō: 1308--1310.

Enkyō (1744)

Nengō: 1744--1747.

Enkyū

Nengō: 1069--1073.

En'ō

Nengō: 1239--1239.

Enryaku

Nengō: 782--805.

Entoku

Nengō: 1489--1491.

En'yū-tennō

The 64th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 2 March 959 to 12 Feb. 991

Reigned 13 Aug. 969 to 27 Aug. 984.

Fifth son of Emperor Murakami.

Etchū Province

A province in central Honshū, on the Sea of Japan side. It bordered Echigo, Shinano, Hida, Kaga, and Noto. The area is today Toyama Prefecture.

See Also

Echigo Province (pg. X), Hida Province (pg. X), Kaga Province (pg. X), Noto Province (pg. X), Shinano Province (pg. X), Toyama Prefecture (pg. X),

Etō Shinpei

Lived 9 Feb. 1834 to 13 April 1874.

A samurai from Saga (pg XXX), Shinpei held posts in the Meiji government. He resigned over the invasion of Korea.

In 1874, Shinpei led Saga samurai against the government in the Saga Rebellion (pg XXX).

Feminism – Fuwa Mitsuharu

Feminism

Five-Powers Treaty

Treaty negotiated by France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, and the United States at the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-1922.

The Five-Powers Treaty dealt with naval arms limitations. There were to be no new capital ships constructed for ten years – with the exception that each power could convert two battle cruisers under construction into aircraft carriers. Aircraft carriers could be no bigger than 27,000 tons. (The two converted-battle-cruiser aircraft carriers could be up to 33,000 tons.)

The size of navies was limited. The ratio for capital ships was 10:10:6:6:6 for Great Britain, The United States, France, Japan, and Italy.

See Also

Washington Naval Conference (pg 376)

Formosa Expedition

Four-Powers Treaty

Treaty negotiated by France, Great Britain, Japan, and the United States at the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-1922.

The Four-Powers Treaty confirmed the status-quo in the Pacific with respect to each countries possessions.

See Also

Washington Naval Conference (pg 376)

Fujita Denzaburo

Lived 1841 to 1912

Fujiwara Family

Fujiwara Hidesato

Dates unknown.

Hidesato was a Heian era leader of warriors.

Fujiwara Kaneie

Lived 929 to 2 July 990.

Father of Fujiwara Michinaga

Fujiwara Michinaga

Lived 966 to 4 Dec. 1028

Fujiwara Morosuke

Lived 908 to 4 May 960.

Fujiwara no Sadaie

Lived 1162 to 1241

Fujiwara Uona

Fujiwara Yamakage

Fujiwara Yorinaga

Japanese: 藤原 ??

Lived 1120 to 1156.

Naidaijin from about 1137. Minister of the Left from 1150.

Leader of the Hōgen Insurrection (pg 131). Died in the fighting.

Fujiwara Yoritsugu

The 5th Kamakura shōgun.

Lived 21 Nov. 1239 to 25 Sept. 1256.

Ruled 28 April 1244 to Dec. 1251.

Son of Yoritsune.

Fujiwara Yoritsune

Lived 16 Jan. 1218 to 11 Aug. 1256.

Ruled 27 Jan. 1226 to 28 April 1244.

The 4th Kamakura shōgun.

Father of Yoritsugu.

Fujiwara Yoshikado

Fukagawa Cement Works

Fukahara Hirotoshi

Lived 1512 to 1593.

Fukahori Sumikata

Fukuchi Gen'ichiro

Lived 1841 to 1906

Fukuda Hideko

aka Kageyama Hideko

Lived 1865 to 1927

Fukuda Takeo

Born 1905.

Graduated from Tokyo University. Worked for the Finance Ministry. Elected to the Diet in 1952. Served in various cabinets and became prime minister on 24 December 1976. His cabinet lasted until 7 December 1978.

Fukui City

The capital of Fukui Prefecture.

Fukui Prefecture

Area: 4,188 km2 (1995)

Capital: Fukui

Population: 830,000 (1996)

Fukumoto Kazuo

A Marxist intellectual who was influential in the Japanese communist movement in the mid-1920's.

Fukuoka City

The capital of Fukuoka Prefecture.

Fukuoka Prefecture

Area: 4,968 km2 (1995)

Capital: Fukuoka

Population: 4,900,000 (1996)

Fukushima City

The capital of Fukushima Prefecture (pg XXX).

Fukushima Masanobu

Fukushima Masanori

Lived 1561 to 13 July 1634 (1614?).

Fukushima Masashige

Died 1521.

Fukushima Masayori

Fukushima Prefecture

Area: 13,782 km2 (1995)

Capital: Fukushima

Population: 2,140,000 (1996)

Fukuzawa Yukichi

Lived 12 Dec. 1834 to 3 Feb. 1901.

Studied Western science in Nagasaki. Studied in Ōsaka under Ogata Kōan from 1854. Later taught in Tokyo---his school eventually became Keiō University.

Went abroad several times. Wrote Seiyō Jijō (Conditions in the West) which was hugely popular. Also wrote The Encouragement of Learning, An Outline of a Theory of Civilization, (Japanese titles?) among many books and articles.

Founded Jiji Shinpō in 1882.

His portrait is on the current 10,000 yen bill.

See Also

Ogata Kōan (pg. X), Jiji Shinpō (pg. X), Currency (pg. X),

Fuma Kotaro

aka Kazama Kotaro.

Furukawa Ichibei

Lived 1832 to 1903

Businessman. Bought the Ashio copper mine from the government in 1877. Eventually he was in control of a minor zaibatsu.

Furuta Shigekatsu

Lived 1561 to 1600.

Survived the Battle of Sekigahara but died later the same year.

Received Matsuzaka (37,000 koku) in Ise from Hideyoshi (when?). In 1600, Ieyasu awarded him someplace worth 60,000 koku.

See Also

Ise Province (pg. X), Sekigahara, Battle of (pg. X), Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg. X), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (pg. X),

Furuta Shigenari

Lived 1545 to 1615.

A minor daimyō in charge of 10,000 koku which he received sometime after 1600. He lost his domain because he communicated with the Toyotomi during the Seige of Ōsaka Castle.

See Also

Ōsaka, Siege of (pg. X), Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg. X), Toyotomi Family (pg. X), Fushimi Castle (pg. X),

Fushimi, Seige of

Took place in 1600.

Torii Mototada (pg XXX) defended the castle for Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg XXX).

Fushimi-tennō

The 92nd Emperor of Japan.

Lived 23 April 1265 to 3 Sept. 1317.

Reigned 21 Oct. 1287 to 22 July 1298.

Futamata, Seige of

Took place in 1572.

The castle is on a cliff above the Tenryūgawa. The defenders got water from the river by lowering buckets into the river from a protected tower.

The castle was owned by the Tokugawa and beseiged by Takeda Katsuyori (pg XXX). Katsuyori floated large, unmanned rafts down the river and into the tower. These weakened the tower enough that it eventually collapsed, depriving the defenders of their water supply. The defenders surrendered soon after.

Futo, Battle of

Fuwa Katsumitsu

Fuwa Mitsuharu

Died 1581.

Gamō Hideyuki – Gyoki

Gamō Hideyuki

Lived 1583 to 1612.

The son of Gamō Ujisato. Christian. Was moved to Utsunomiya (180,000 koku) in Shimotsuke after his father died in 1595. In 1600, he was given Wakamatsu, worth 600,000 koku. This had been part of his father's fief.

See Also

Gamō Ujisato (pg. X), Shimotsuke (pg. X), Utsunomiya-han (pg. X), Wakamatsu-han (pg. X),

Gamō Katahide

Lived 1534 to 1584.

The father of Gamō Ujisato.

Served the Sasaki family and later Oda Nobunaga.

See Also

Gamō Ujisato (pg. X), Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Sasaki Family (pg. X),

Gamō Ujisato

Lived 1556 to 7 Feb. 1595.

Son of Gamō Katahide and father of Gamō Hideyuki. His wife was a daughter of Oda Nobunaga. Christian.

Fought at Ōkōchi castle in 1570.

Was daimyō of Matsusaka (120,000 koku) in Ise Province but was ordered to Aizu (420,000 koku) in Mutsu as part of a plan to bring the northeastern daimyō under Hideyoshi's control. To this end, Ujisato and Asano Nagamasa defeated and killed Kunohe Masazane (when? where?). As a reward for his successful service, Ujisato was granted extra lands and was eventually in control of more than one million koku.

In 1584, he was baptised and took the name Leo.

See Also

Aizu-han (pg. X), Asano Nagamasa (pg. X), Gamō Hideyuki (pg. X), Gamō Katahide (pg. X), Ise Province (pg. X), Kunohe Masazane (pg. X), Ōkōchi Castle (pg. X), Matsusaka-han (pg. X), Mutsu Province (pg. X), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (pg. X),

Gembun

Nengō: 1736--1740.

Gemmei-tennō

Empress. The 43th ruler of Japan.

Reigned 707 to 715.

Genchū

Nengō: 1380--1382.

Gen'ei

Nengō: 1118--1119.

aka Gan'ei.

Genji

Nengō: 1864--1864.

aka Ganji.

Genkei

Nengō: 877--884.

Genki

Nengō: 1570--1572.

Genkō (1321)

Nengō: 1321--1323.

aka Genkyō.

Genkō (1331)

Nengō: 1331--1333.

Genkyō

Nengō: 1321--1323.

Usually known as Genkō. See that entry on page XXX.

Genkyū

Nengō: 1204--1205.

Genna

Nengō: 1615--1623.

aka Genwa.

Gennin

Nengō: 1224--1224.

Gen'ō

Nengō: 1319--1320.

Genreki

Nengō: 1184--1184.

Usually known as Genryaku. See that entry on page XXX.

Genroku

Nengō: 1688--1703.

Genro

``Elder Statesmen''. A term applied to the leaders of the Meiji government. Includes men such as Ito Hirobumi and ???. Saonji Kinmochi is considered the last Genro.

Genryaku

Nengō: 1184--1184.

aka Ganryaku. aka Genreki.

Genshō-tennō

Empress. The 44th ruler of Japan.

Reigned 715 to 724.

Gentoku

Nengō: 1329--1330.

Genwa

Nengō: 1615--1623.

Usually known as Genna. See that entry on page XXX.

Gifu City

A city in, and the capital of, Gifu Prefecture.

Gifu Prefecture

Area: 10,598 km2 (1995)

Capital: Gifu

Population: 2,100,000 (1996)

Ginkakuji

Godaigo-tennō

The 96th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 2 Nov. 1288 to 16 Aug. 1339.

Reigned 26 Feb. 1318 to 15 Aug 1339.

Godai Tomoatsu

Lived 1836 to 1885.

Businessman.

Studied in the West 1865 to 1866. Joined the Meiji government but soon left and went into business. Godai was active in metals, mining, and railways, among other interests.

Godō Takuo

Agriculture & Forestry Minister from Aug 30, 1939 to Oct 16, 1939 in Abe Nobuyuki's cabinet.

Gofukakusa-tennō

The 89th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 10 June 1243 to 16 July 1304.

Reigned 29 Jan. 1246 to 26 Nov. 1259.

Gofushimi-tennō

The 93rd Emperor of Japan.

Lived 3 March 1288 to 6 April 1336.

Reigned 22 July 1298 to 21 Jan. 1301.

Gohanazono-tennō

The 102nd Emperor of Japan.

Lived 18 June 1419 to 27 Dec. 1470.

Reigned 28 July 1428 to 19 July 1464.

Gohorikawa-tennō

The 86th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 18 Feb. 1212 to 6 Aug. 1234.

Reigned 9 July 1221 to 4 Oct. 1232.

Goichijō-tennō

The 68th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 11 Sept. 1008 to 17 April 1036.

Reigned 29 Jan 1016 to 17 April 1036.

The second son of the Emperor Ichijō. (double check that)

Gokameyama-tennō

The 99th Emperor of Japan.

Died 12 April 1424

Reigned 1383 to 1392.

Gokashiwabara-tennō

The 104th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 20 Oct. 1464 to 7 April 1526.

Reigned 25 Oct. 1500 to 7 April 1526.

The coronation ceremony was not held until 1521.

Gokomatsu-tennō

The 100th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 27 June 1377 to 20 Oct. 1433.

Reigned 11 April 1382 to 1392 as the emperor of the Northern Court and continued as emperor when the courts reunited until abdicating on 29 Aug. 1412.

Gokōmyō-tennō

The 110th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 12 March 1633 to 20 Sept. 1654.

Reigned 3 Oct. 1643 to 20 Sept. 1654.

Gomizunō-tennō

The 108th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 4 June 1596 to 19 Aug. 1680.

Reigned 27 March 1611 to 8 Nov. 1629.

Father of Reigen-tennō (pg. X).

Gomomozono-tennō

The 118th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 2 July 1758 to 29 Oct. 1779.

Reigned 24 Nov. 1770 to 29 Oct. 1779.

Gomurakami-tennō

The 97th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 1328 to 11 March 1368.

Reigned 15 Aug. 1339 to 11 March 1368.

Gonara-tennō

The 105th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 23 Dec. 1496 to 5 Sept. 1557

Reigned 29 April 1526 to 5 Sept. 1557.

Gonijō-tennō

The 94th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 2 Feb. 1285 to 25 Aug. 1308

Reigned 21 Jan. 1301 to 25 Aug. 1308.

Goreizei-tennō

The 70th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 3 Aug. 1025 to 19 April 1068.

Reigned 16 Jan. 1045 to 19 April 1068.

Gosaga-tennō

The 88th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 26 Feb. 1220 to 17 Feb. 1272.

Reigned 20 Jan. 1242 to 29 Jan. 1246.

Gosai-tennō

The 111st Emperor of Japan.

Lived 16 Nov. 1637 to 22 Feb. 1685.

Reigned 28 Nov. 1654(?) to 26 Jan. 1663.

Gosakuramachi-tennō

The 117th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 3 Aug. 1740 to 1813.

Reigned 27 July 1762 to 24 Nov. 1770.

Gosanjō-tennō

The 71st Emperor of Japan.

Lived 18 July 1034 to 7 May 1073.

Reigned 19 April 1068 to 8 Dec. 1072.

Goshirakawa-tennō

The 77th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 11 Sept. 1127 to 13 March 1192.

Reigned 24 July 1155 to 11 Aug. 1158.

Gosuzaku-tennō

The 69th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 25 Nov. 1009 to 18 Jan. 1045.

Reigned 17 April 1036 to 16 Jan. 1045.

Gotoba-tennō

The 82nd Emperor of Japan.

Lived 14 July 1180 to 22 Feb. 1239.

Reigned 20 Aug. 1183 to 11 Jan. 1198.

Goto Family (Haruma)

Gotō Family (Hizen)

Daimyō family from Hizen Province, related to the Seiwa-Genji.

Goto Moriharu

Died 1578.

Goto Motokuni

Died 1580.

Gotō Mototsugu

Lived 1573 to 1615.

Aka Gotō Matabei.

Son of Gotō Motokuni and father of Gotō Ujifusa.

Gotō Shinpei

Lived 4 June 1857 to 13 April 1929.

Doctor and Bureaucrat

Head of Sanitation Bureau (part of the Home Ministry) from 1890 to 1892 and again from 1895 to 1898.

Was the head of civilian administration of Taiwan from 1898 to 1906.

Became the first president of the Manchurian Railway in 1906.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

2nd Katsura

Communications

Jul 14, 2008

Aug 30, 1911

3rd Katsura

Communications

Dec 21, 1912

Feb 20, 1913

Terauchi

Home Affairs

Oct 9, 1916

Apr 23, 1918

Terauchi

Foreign Affairs

Apr 23, 1918

Sep 29, 1918

2nd Yamamoto

Home Affairs

Sep 2, 1923

Jan 7, 1924

Table 13 Cabinet Positions Held by Gotō Shinpei

See Also

Taiwan (pg. X), Manchurian Railway Company (pg. X),

Gotō Shōjirō

Lived 19 March 1838 to 4 Aug. 1897.

Samurai and Politician

Samurai from Tosa. Gotō studied at Kaiseitō and was influenced by Sakamoto Ryōma. He was active in the Meiji government but quit in 1873 over disagreements about whether or not to invade Korea.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Kuroda

Communications

03/22/89

12/24/89

1st Yamaguchi

Communications

12/24/89

05/06/91

1st Matsukata

Communications

05/06/91

08/08/92

2nd Itō

Agriculture and Commerce

08/08/92

01/22/94

Table 14 Cabinet Positions Held by Gotō Shōjirō

See Also

Itō Hirobumi (pg. X), Kaiseitō (pg. X), Korea, Invasion of (pg. X), Matsukata Masayoshi (pg. X), Tosa-han (pg. X), Yamagato Aritomo (pg. X),

Goto Sumikuro

Goto Takaaki

Gotō Ujifusa

Lived 1570 to 1615.

The son of Gotō Mototsugu. Served Kuroda Nagamasa. Was loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori and died at Ōsaka Castle.

See Also

Gotō Mototsugu (pg. X), Kuroda Nagamasa (pg. X), Ōsaka, Seige of (pg. X), Toyotomi Hideyori (pg. X),

Gotsuchimikado-tennō

The 103rd Emperor of Japan.

Lived 25 May 1442 to 28 Sept. 1500.

Reigned 19 July 1464 to 28 Sept. 1500.

Gouda-tennō

The 91st Emperor of Japan.

Lived 1 Dec. 1267 to 25 June 1324.

Reigned 26 Jan. 1274 to 21 Oct. 1287.

Goyōzei-tennō

The 107th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 15 Dec. 1571 to 26 Aug. 1617.

Reigned 7 Nov. 1586 to 27 March 1611.

Great Kansai Earthquake

Occurred 17 January 1995

Two great earthquakes shook Japan in the 20th century: the Great Kanto Earthquake (pg 116) in 1923 and the Great Kansai Earthquake in 1995. The latter occurred on 17 January 1995.

Great Kanto Earthquake

Occurred 1 September 1923

Two great earthquakes shook Japan in the 20th century: the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923 and the Great Kansai Earthquake (pg 116) in 1995. The former occurred on 1 September and started (as is not unusual with earthquakes) fires that killed more people than did the quake itself. An estimated 100,000 people died and as many as two million were left homeless.

Rumours spread that various unpopular groups were taking advantage of the chaos to start fires and otherwise increase the general misery. The rumours were just that – rumours, but many people, including the authorities, used them as an excuse to crack down on the groups. Hundreds of Koreans, Socialists, Anarchists, and some others were murdered – either by mobs or by the police.

Gunma Prefecture

Area: 6,363km2 (1995)

Capital: Maebashi

Population: 2,000,000 (1996)

Gyoki

Lived 668 to 749.

Habu Yoshiharu – Hyūga Province

Habu Yoshiharu

Hakuchi

Nengō: 650--654.

Hakuchō

Nengō: 673--685.

Hakuhō

Nengō: 672--685.

Hamada Hikozo

see Heco, Joseph on page 123.

Hamaguchi Osachi

aka Hamaguchi Yuko

Lived 1870 to 1931

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Katō

Finance

Jun 11, 1924

Aug 2, 1925

2nd Katō

Finance

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

1st Wakatsuki

Finance

Jan 30, 1926

Jun 3, 1926

1st Wakatsuki

Home Affairs

Jun 3, 1926

Dec 16, 1926

1st Wakatsuki

Home Affairs

Mar 15, 1927

Apr 20, 1927

Hamaguchi

Prime Minister

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Table 15 Cabinet Positions Held by Hamaguchi Osachi

Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Hamaguchi Osachi

Prime Minister

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Machida Chūji

Agriculture & Forestry

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Suzuki Fujiya

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Kawasaki Takukichi

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Matsuda Genji

Colonization

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Tawara Magoichi

Commerce & Industry

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Koizumi Matajirō

Communications

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Kobashi Ichita

Education

Jul 2, 1929

Nov 29, 1929

Tanaka Ryūzō

Education

Nov 29, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Inoue Junnosuke

Finance

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Shidehara Kijurō

Foreign Affairs

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Abe Nobuyuki

Hanretsu

Jun 16, 1930

Dec 10, 1930

Adachi Kenzō

Home Affairs

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Watanabe Chifuyu

Justice

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Takarabe Takeshi

Navy

Jul 2, 1929

Oct 3, 1930

Abo Kiyokazu

Navy

Oct 3, 1930

Apr 14, 1931

Egi Tasuku

Railways

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

Ugaki Kazushige

War

Jul 2, 1929

Jun 16, 1930

Abe Nobuyuki

War

Jun 16, 1930

Dec 10, 1930

Ugaki Kazushige

War

Dec 10, 1930

Apr 14, 1931

Table 16 Hamaguchi Osachi's Cabinet

Hanazono-tennō

The 95th emperor of Japan.

Lived 25 July 1297 to 11 Nov. 1348.

Reigned 26 Aug. 1308 to 26 Feb. 1318.

Son of Emperor Fushimi.

Hanzei-tennō

The 18th emperor of Japan.

Dates unknown.

Reigned 406 to 410.

Son of Emperor Nintoku.

Hara Castle

A castle in Hizen Provence. During the Shimabara Rebellion, (who-was-it-again?) besieged the rebellious peasants there.

See Also

Hara, Seige of (pg. X), Hizen Province (pg. X), Shimabara Rebellion (pg. X),

Hara Kei

Aka Hara Satoshi and Hara Takashi

Lived 9 Feb. 1856 to 4 Nov. 1921

Well known as the first `commoner' prime minister.

Cabinet Positions Held by Hara Kei

Cabinet

Position

From

To

4th Itō

Communications

Dec 22, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

1st Saionji

Home Affairs

Jan 7, 1906

Jul 14, 1908

1st Saionji

Communications

Jan 14, 1908

Mar 25, 1908

2nd Saionji

Home Affairs

Aug 30, 1911

Dec 21, 1912

1st Yamamoto

Home Affairs

Feb 20, 1913

Apr 16, 1914

Hara

Prime Minister

Sep 29, 1918

Nov 13, 1912

Hara

Justice

Sep 29, 1918

May 15, 1920

Table 17 Cabinet Positions Held by Hara Kei

Name

Position

From

To

Hara Kei

Prime Minister

Sep 29, 1918

Nov 13, 1921

Yamamoto Tatsuo

Agriculture AND Commerce

Sep 29, 1918

Nov 13, 1921

Takahashi Mitsutake

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Sep 29, 1918

Nov 13, 1921

Yokota Sennosuke

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Sep 29, 1918

Nov 13, 1921

Noda Utarō

Communications

Sep 29, 1918

Nov 13, 1921

Nakahashi Tokugorō

Education

Sep 29, 1918

Nov 13, 1921

Takahashi Korekiyo

Finance

Sep 29, 1918

Nov 13, 1921

Uchida Kōsai

Foreign Affairs

Sep 29, 1918

Nov 13, 1921

Tokonami Takejirō

Home Affairs

Sep 29, 1918

Nov 13, 1921

Hara Kei

Justice

Sep 29, 1918

May 15, 1920

Ōki Enkichi

Justice

May 15, 1920

Nov 13, 1921

Katō Tomosaburō

Navy

Sep 29, 1918

Nov 13, 1921

Motoda Hajime

Railways

May 15, 1920

Nov 13, 1921

Tanaka Giichi

War

Sep 29, 1918

Jun 9, 1921

Yamanashi Hanzō

War

Jun 9, 1921

Nov 13, 1921

Table 18 Hara Kei's Cabinet

Hara, Seige of

Lasted from 1637—1638.

The main battle of the Shimabara Rebellion. The defenders held out against incredible odds but eventually the food runs out and grass will not sustain an army.

Harbin

Harima Province

A province in the area that is today Hyōgo Prefecture. Harima bordered on Tajima, Tamba, Settsu, Bizen, and Mimasaka.

See Also

Bizen Province (pg. X), Hyōgo Prefecture (pg. X), Mimasaka Province (pg. X), Settsu Province (pg. X), Tajima Province (pg. X), Tamba Province (pg. X),

Harris, Townsend

Lived 4 Oct. 1804 to 25 Feb. 1878.

``Plenipotentiary Minister and Consul” of the United States, Harris arrived in Japan in August of 1856. Two years later, in 1858, he signed a treaty (the ansei treaties, yes?).

Hashimoto Kingoro

Lived 1890 to 1957

Hashimoto Ryūtarō

Prime Minister from 11 January 1996 to 7 November 1996 and from 7 November 1996 to 30 July 1998.

Replaced by Obuchi Keizō (pg XXX).

Hatakeyama Family

A daimyō family originally descended from Taira Takamochi.

Hatano Hideharu

Hata Tsutomu

Prime Minister from 28 April 1994 to 30 June 1994. Replaced by Murayama Tomiichi (pg XXX).

Hatoyama Ichirō

Lived 1883 to 1959

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Tanaka

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Apr 20, 1927

Jul 2, 1929

Inukai

Education

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Saitō

Education

May 26, 1932

Mar 3, 1934

1st Hatoyama

Prime Minister

Dec 10, 1954

Mar 19, 1955

2nd Hatoyama

Prime Minister

Mar 19, 1955

Nov 22, 1955

3rd Hatoyama

Prime Minister

Nov 22, 1955

Dec 23, 1956

Table 19 Cabinet Positions Held by Hatoyama Ichirō

(Coming Soon - his cabinets!)

Hayashi Senjūrō

Lived 1876 to 1943.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Saitō

War

Jan 23, 1934

Jul 8, 1934

Okada

War

Jul 8, 1934

Sep 5, 1935

Hayashi

Foreign Affairs

Feb 2, 1937

Mar 3, 1937

Hayashi

Prime Minister

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Hayashi

Education

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Table 20 Cabinet Positions Held by Hayashi Senjūrō

Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Hayashi Senjūrō

Prime Minister

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Yamazaki Tatsunosuke

Agriculture & Forestry

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Ōhashi Hachirō

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Kawagoe Takeo

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Yūki Toyotarō

Colonization

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Godō Takuo

Commerce & Industry

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Yamazaki Tatsunosuke

Communications

Feb 2, 1937

Feb 10, 1937

Kodama Hideo

Communications

Feb 10, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Hayashi Senjūrō

Education

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Yūki Toyotarō

Finance

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Hayashi Senjūrō

Foreign Affairs

Feb 2, 1937

Mar 3, 1937

Satō Naotake

Foreign Affairs

Mar 3, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Kawarada Kakichi

Home Affairs

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Shiono Suehiko

Justice

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Yonai Mitsumasa

Navy

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Godō Takuo

Railways

Feb 2, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Nakamura Kōtarō

War

Feb 2, 1937

Feb 9, 1937

Sugiyama Gen

War

Feb 9, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Table 21 Hayashi Senjūrō's Cabinet

Hayashi Yūzō

Lived 1842 to 1921

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Ōkuma

Communications

Jun 30, 1898

Nov 8, 1898

4th Itō

Agriculture & Commerce

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Heco, Joseph

Hayashi Tadasu

Lived 1850 to 1913

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Saionji

Foreign Affairs

May 19, 1906

Aug 30, 1906

1st Saionji

Foreign Affairs

Sep 18, 1906

Jul 14, 1908

2nd Saionji

Communications

Aug 30, 1911

Dec 21, 1912

Table 22 Cabinet Positions Held by Hayashi Tadasu

aka Hamada Hikozo

Lived 1837 to 1897

Heian Period

Japanese: 平安時代

The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history and runs from 794 to 1185. The Heian period was preceded by the Nara period and began in 794 after the movement of the imperial capital to Heiankyō (present-day Kyōto) by the 50th emperor Kammu. It is considered a high point in Japanese culture that later generations have always admired. Also, the period is also noted for the rise of the samurai class, which would eventually take power and start the feudal period of Japan.

Nominally, sovereignty lay in the emperor but in fact power was wielded by the Fujiwara nobility. However, to protect their interests in the provinces, the Fujiwara and other noble families required guards, police and soldiers. The warrior class made steady gains throughout the Heian period. As early as 939, Taira no Masakado threatened the authority of the central government, leading an uprising in the eastern province of Hitachi, and almost simultaneously, Fujiwara no Sumitomo rebelled in the west. Still, military takeover was centuries away.

The entry of the warrior class into court influence was a result of the Hogen disturbance. At this time Taira Kiyomori revived the Fujiwara practices by placing his grandson on the throne to rule Japan by regency. The Taira clan was overthrown in the Gempei War and the Minamoto because the power behind the throne. Thus the Heian period ends in 1185 when Minamoto Yoritomo established a bakufu, the Kamakura shōgunate, in Kamakura.

This period saw the flowering of the Shingon school of esoteric Buddhism, founded by Kukai, as well as the Jodo Shinshu, or True Pure Land, school, founded by Shinran.

Heian period literature

Although written Chinese remained the official language of the Heian period imperial court, the introduction and wide use of kana saw a boom in Japanese literature. Despite the establishment of several new literary genre such as the novel and narrative monogatari (物語) and essays, literacy was only common among the court and Buddhist clergy.

The lyrics of the modern Japanese national anthem, "Kimi Ga Yo," were written in the Heian period, as was The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu, one of the first novels in Japanese. Murasaki Shikibu's contemporary and rival Sei Shonagon's revealing observations and musings as an attendant in the Empress' court were recorded collectively as The Pillow Book in the 990s. The famous Japanese poem known as the iroha was also written during the Heian period.

The Rise of the military class

Under the early courts, when military conscription had been centrally controlled, military affairs had been taken out of the hands of the provincial aristocracy. But as the system broke down after 792, local power holders again became the primary source of military strength. Shoen holders had access to manpower and, as they obtained improved military technology (such as new training methods, more powerful bows, armor, horses, and superior swords) and faced worsening local conditions in the ninth century, military service became part of shoen life. Not only the shoen but also civil and religious institutions formed private guard units to protect themselves. Gradually, the provincial upper class was transformed into a new military elite based on the ideals of the bushi (warrior) or samurai (literally, one who serves; see The Bushido Code , ch. 8).

Bushi interests were diverse, cutting across old power structures to form new associations in the tenth century. Mutual interests, family connections, and kinship were consolidated in military groups that became part of family administration. In time, large regional military families formed around members of the court aristocracy who had become prominent provincial figures. These military families gained prestige from connections to the imperial court and court-granted military titles and access to manpower. The Fujiwara, Taira, and Minamoto were among the most prominent families supported by the new military class.

Decline in food production, growth of the population, and competition for resources among the great families all led to the gradual decline of Fujiwara power and gave rise to military disturbances in the mid-tenth and eleventh centuries. Members of the Fujiwara, Taira, and Minamoto families – all of whom had descended from the imperial family – attacked one another and claimed control over conquered land. They used this land to reward, and thus ensure the loyalty of, their retainers.

The Fujiwara controlled the throne until the reign of Emperor Go-Sanjo (1068-73), the first emperor not born of a Fujiwara mother since the ninth century. Go-Sanjo, determined to restore imperial control through strong personal rule, implemented reforms to curb Fujiwara influence. He also established an office to compile and validate estate records with the aim of reasserting central control. Many shoen were not properly certified, and large landholders, like the Fujiwara, felt threatened with the loss of their lands. Go-Sanjo also established the Incho, or Office of the Cloistered Emperor, which was held by a succession of emperors who abdicated to devote themselves to behind-the-scenes governance, or insei (cloistered government).

The Incho filled the void left by the decline of Fujiwara power. Rather than being banished, the Fujiwara were mostly retained in their old positions of civil dictator and minister of the center while being bypassed in decision making. In time, many of the Fujiwara were replaced, mostly by members of the rising Minamoto family. While the Fujiwara fell into disputes among themselves and formed northern and southern factions, the insei system allowed the paternal line of the imperial family to gain influence over the throne. The period from 1086 to 1156 was the age of supremacy of the Incho and of the rise of the military class throughout the country. Military might rather than civil authority dominated the government.

A struggle for succession in the mid-twelfth century gave the Fujiwara an opportunity to regain their former power. Fujiwara Yorinaga sided with the retired emperor in a violent battle in 1158 against the heir apparent, who was supported by the Taira and Minamoto. In the end, the Fujiwara were destroyed, the old system of government supplanted, and the insei system left powerless as bushi took control of court affairs, marking a turning point in Japanese history. Within a year, the Taira and Minamoto clashed, and a twenty-year period of Taira ascendancy began. The Taira were seduced by court life and ignored problems in the provinces. Finally, Minamoto Yoritomo (1147-99) rose from his headquarters at Kamakura (in the Kanto region, southwest of modern Tokyo) to defeat the Taira, and with them the child emperor they controlled, in the Gempei War (1180-85).

See Also

Suggested Reading

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heian_Period

Heiji

Nengō: 1159--1159.

Heiminsha

Heisei-tennō

The 125th emperor of Japan. Also the current emperor.

Reign: 1989 to present.

Heisei

Nengō: 1989--present

Heizei-tennō

The 51st emperor of Japan.

Lived 15 Aug. 774 to 7 July 824.

Reigned 17 March 806 to 1 April 809.

Hepburn, James

Lived 1815 to 1911

Heusken, Henry

Lived 1832 to 1861

Served the U.S. government. Was murdered in Edo on 14 Jan. 1861.

Hibuya Riots

Hida Province

A province in the area that is today part of Gifu Prefecture. Hida bordered on Kaga, Etchū, Shinano, Mino, and Echizen.

See Also

Echizen Province (pg. X), Etchū Province (pg. X), Gifu Prefecture (pg. X), Hida Province (pg. X), Kaga Province (pg. X), Mino Province (pg. X), Shinano Province (pg. X),

Higashikuni Naruhiko

Lived 3 December 1887 to 20 Jan. 1990.

Prime Minister from 17 August 1945 to 9 October 1945.

(Add cabinet)

Higashiyama-tennō

The 113rd emperor of Japan.

Lived 3 Sept. 1675 to 17 Dec. 1709.

Reigned 21 March 1687 to 21 June 1709.

Higo Province

A province in the area that is today Kumamoto Prefecture on the island of Kyūshū. Higo bordered on Chikugo, Bungo, Hyūga, Ōsumi, and Satsuma.

See Also

Bungo Province (pg. X), Chikugo Province (pg. X), Hyūga Province (pg. X), Kumamoto Prefecture (pg. X), Kyūshū (pg. X), Ōsumi Province (pg. X), Satsuma Province (pg. X),

Himeji Castle

Castle in Hyōgo Prefecture (Harima Province). Originally build around 1350 by Akamatsu Sadanori. Over the years it changed hands many times. Toyotomi Hideyoshi took Himeji castle for Oda Nobunaga in 1577.

During the Tokugawa Period, a succession of daimyō were moved in and out of the castle.

See Also

Akamatsu Sadanori (pg. X), Harima Province (pg. X), Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (pg. X),

Himiko

aka Pimiko

In ancient Chinese texts, Himiko is mentioned as the queen of Japan, but just who she was and where she ruled is still a bit of a mystery.

Hinin

Outcastes. The lowest class in pre-Meiji Japanese society. The class officially ceased to exist in 1871, but unoffical discrimination did not end overnight.

Hiranuma Kiichirō

Lived 28 Sept. 1867 to 22 Aug. 1952.

Prime Minister from 5 January 1939 to 30 August 1939.

Cabinet Posts

Cabinet

Position

From

To

2nd Yamamoto

Justice

Sep 6, 1923

Jan 7, 1924

Hiranuma

Prime Minister

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

2nd Konoe

Minister of State

Dec 6, 1940

Dec 21, 1940

2nd Konoe

Home Affairs

Dec 21, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

3rd Konoe

Minister of State

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Table 23 Cabinet Positions Held by Hiranuma Kiichirō

Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Hiranuma Kiichirō

Prime Minister

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Sakurauchi Yukio

Agriculture & Forestry

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Tanabe Harumichi

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Jan 5, 1939

Apr 7, 1939

Kurosaki Teizō

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Ōta Kōzō

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Apr 7, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Koiso Kuniaki

Colonization

Apr 7, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Hatta Yoshiaki

Colonization

Jan 5, 1939

Apr 7, 1939

Hatta Yoshiaki

Commerce & Industry

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Shiono Suehiko

Communications

Jan 5, 1939

Apr 7, 1939

Tanabe Harumichi

Communications

Apr 7, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Araki Sadao

Education

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Ishiwata Sōtarō

Finance

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Arita Hachirō

Foreign Affairs

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Konoe Fumimaro

Hanretsu

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Kido Kōichi

Home Affairs

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Shiono Suehiko

Justice

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Yonai Mitsumasa

Navy

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Maeda Yonezō

Railways

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Itagaki Seishirō

War

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Hirose Hisatada

Welfare

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Table 24Hiranuma Kiichirō's Cabinet

Hiratsuka Raicho

Lived 1886 to 1971

Hirohito

see Showa-tennō (page XXX)

Hirose Saihei

Lived 1828 to 1914

Hiroshima, Bombing Of

The United States military dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, on 6 August 1945.

Hiroshima City

The capital of Hiroshima Prefecture.

Hiroshima was the first city --- Japanese or otherwise --- to suffer a nuclear bombing. The only other city to have a nuclear weapon used on it is Nagasaki, in Nagasaki Prefecture.

See Also

Hiroshima, Bombing of (pg XXX), Nagasaki, Bombing of (pg XXX), Nagasaki City (pg XXX)

Hiroshima Prefecture

Area: 8,475 km2 (1995)

Capital: Hiroshima

Population: 2,870,000 (1996)

Hirota Kōki

Lived 14 Feb. 1878 to 23 Dec. 1948

Executed as a class `A' war criminal.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Saitō

Foreign Affairs

Sep 14, 1933

Jul 8, 1934

Okada

Foreign Affairs

Jul 8, 1934

Mar 9, 1936

Hirota

Foreign Affairs

Mar 9, 1936

Apr 2, 1936

Hirota

Prime Minister

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

1st Konoe

Foreign Affairs

Jun 4, 1937

May 26, 1938

Table 25 Cabinet Positions Held by Hirota Kōki

Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Hirota Kōki

Prime Minister

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Shimada Toshio

Agriculture & Forestry

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Fujinuma Shōhei

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Tsugita Daizaburō

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Nagata Hidejirō

Colonization

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Kawasaki Takukichi

Commerce & Industry

Mar 9, 1936

Mar 27, 1936

Ogawa Gōtarō

Commerce & Industry

Mar 28, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Tanomogi Keikichi

Communications

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Ushio Keinosuke

Education

Mar 9, 1936

Mar 25, 1936

Hirao Hachisaburō

Education

Mar 25, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Baba Eiichi

Finance

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Hirota Kōki

Foreign Affairs

Mar 9, 1936

Apr 2, 1936

Arita Hachirō

Foreign Affairs

Apr 2, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Ushio Keinosuke

Home Affairs

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Hayashi Raizaburō

Justice

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Nagano Osami

Navy

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Maeda Yonezō

Railways

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Terauchi Hisaichi

War

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Table 26 Hirota Kōki's Cabinet

Hisaakira

Lived 1276--1328.

(ADD rule dates)

The seventh son of the Emperor Gofukakusa.

He was made shōgun by Hōjō Sadatoki, replacing Koreyasu.

See Also

Gofukakusa-tennō (pg. X), Hōjō Sadatoki (pg. X), Koreyasu (pg. X), Table of Shōgun (pg. X)

Hitachi Province

A province which bordered on Iwashiro, Iwaki, Shimōsa, and Shimotsuku Provinces. Today the area is Ibaraki Prefecture.

See Also

Ibaraki Prefecture (pg. X), Iwaki Province (pg. X), Iwashiro Province (pg. X), Shimōsa Province (pg. X), Shimotsuku Province (pg. X),

Hiyama Castle

Hizen Province

A province which bordered on Chikuzen and Chikugo. Today the area is part of Nagasaki Prefecture.

Hideyoshi directed the invasion of Korea from the city of Nagoya, in Hizen.

The Shimabara Rebellion took place in Hizen Province.

See Also

Chikugo Province (pg. X), Chikuzen Province (pg. X), Korea, Invasion of (pg. X), Shimabara Rebellion (pg. X),

Hōan

Nengō: 1120--1123.

Hōei

Nengō: 1704--1710.

Hōen

Nengō: 1135--1140.

Hōgen

Japanese: 保元

Nengō: 1156—1158.

Hōgen Insurrection

Japanese: 保元の乱

Disturbance that took place in 1156 between forces raised by Fujiwara Yorinaga (pg 103) and the troops of the Minamoto and Taira families. Named for the nengō during which it took place.

The disturbance took place after a dispute over who would succeed the Emperor Konoye. The Fujiwara Regent, Fujiwara Tadamichi, supported one of the retired Emperor Toba's sons but Yorinaga did not. In the end, the Emperor Toba's son ascended the throne as Emperor Go-Shirakawa. Yorinaga was denied a position of tutor to the heir and took up the cause of Sutoku. He raised troops and set up defences in a palace in the capital. The rebels were attacked there by soldiers supporting the new emperor, including men from both the Taira and Minamoto families.

The importance of the Hōgen Insurrection lies in the fact that warriors had been called on to ratify, in a way, a succession to the throne. They were now the main power in the county. For the next thirty years, the military houses would fight among themselves for control of the country.

(insert Sansom quotes)

Hōji

Nengō: 1247--1248.

Hōjō Family

Descended from Taira Sadamori. There are two main branches:

See Also

Hōjō Sōun (pg. X), Hōjō Ujitsuna (pg. X), Kamakura Shōgunate (pg. X),

Hojoji

A temple in Kyōto.

Hōjō Masako

Lived 1157 to 1225

aka Ama shōgun (Nun shōgun)

Hōjō Masako married Minamoto Yoritomo. She became a nun after he died but remained the power behind the shōgun until her death in 1225.

Hōjō Tokiyori

Lived 1226 to 1263.

5th Kamakura Regent. Held office from 1246 to 1256.

Hōjō Tsunetoki

Lived 1224 to 1246.

4th Kamakura Regent. Held office from 1242 to 1246.

Son of Hōjō Tokiuji.

Hōjō Ujikuni

Son of Hōjō Ujiyasu.

Hōjō Ujiteru

Son of Hōjō Ujiyasu.

Hōjō Ujiyasu

Lived 1515 to 1570.

Son of Hōjō Ujitsuna. Father of Hōjō Ujikuni and Hōjō Ujiteru.

Fought many battles against the Uesugi, Imagawa, the Takeda, the Ota, the Mogami, and the Ashikaga Families. Not all at once of course.

His 7th son was adopted by Uesugi Kenshin and became Uesugi Kagetora.

See Also

Hōjō Ujikuni (pg. X), Hōjō Ujiteru (pg. X), Hōjō Ujitsuna (pg. X), Uesugi Kagetora (pg. X), Uesugi Kenshin (pg. X),

Hōjō Yasutoki

Lived 1183 to 1242.

The 3rd Kamakura Regent. Held office from 1224 to 1242.

Hōki Province

A province in the area that is today Tottori Prefecture. Hoki bordered on Inaba, Mamasaka, Bitchū, Bingo, and Izumo Provinces.

See Also

Bingo Province (pg. X), Bitchū Province (pg. X), Inaba Province (pg. X), Izumo Province (pg. X), Mimasaka Province (pg. X), Tottori Prefecture pg. XXX

Hōki

Nengō: 770--780.

Hokkaidō Prefecture

Technically, not a ken but a dō.

The largest prefecture in Japan and also the most northerly. Known in Tokugawa times as Ezo.

Area: 83,452 km2 (1995)

Capital: Sapporo

Population: 5,690,000 (1996)

Honda Sōichirō

Lived 1906 to 1991

Honnōji, Seige of

Took place in 1582.

Akechi Mitsuhide attacked Oda Nobunaga at the Honnōji, a temple in Kyōto. Mitsuhide was one of Nobunaga's generals and surprise was complete. Nobunaga only had his bodyguards with him and committed suicide.

See the entry for Akechi Mitsuhide for information on his motives.

See Also

Akechi Mitsuhide (pg. X), Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Yamazaki, Battle of (pg. X),

Honshū

One of the four main islands of Japan. Honshū is the main island in that most of the population of the country lives there and most of the most important cities are located in Honshū.

See Also

Hokkaidō Prefecture (pg. X), Kyūshū (pg. X), Shikoku (pg. X)

Hōreki

Nengō: 1751--1763.

Hori Chikamasa

Son of Hori Chikayoshi.

Hori Chikasada

Son of Hori Chikamasa. (double check this)

Hori Chikayoshi

Lived 1580 to 1637.

Son of Hori Hidemasa.

Daimyō of Zōō (Echigo, 40,000 koku). Dispossessed in 1610 but two years later he was given Mōka in Shimotsuke. In 1627 he received Karasuyama, also in Shimotsuke.

Hori Family

A daimyō family from Mino. Descended from Fujiwara Uona (pg XXX).

Hori Hideharu

Lived 1575 to 1606.

Son of Hori Hidemasa.

Became daimyō of Kasugayama (where? how many koku?) on 1590. In 1598, received Takata (350,000 koku) in Echigo.

See Also

Echigo Province (pg. X), Hori Hidemasa (pg. X), Kasugayama-han (pg. X), Takata-han (pg. X)

Hori Hidemasa

Lived 1553-1590.

Fought for Ōda Nobunaga. Sided with Hideyoshi at the Battle of Yamazaki.

Horikawa-tennō

The 73rd emperor of Japan.

Lived 9 July 1079 to 19 July 1107.

Reigned 26 Nov. 1086 to 19 July 1107.

Second son of Shirakawa-tennō. Put on the throne at age nine.

See Also

Shirakawa-tennō (pg. X),

Horio Family

A daimyō family from Owari.

Horio Tadaharu

Lived 1599 to 1633.

Son of Horio Tadauji.

Tadaharu died childless and his lands reverted to the shōgunate.

Horio Tadauji

Lived 1575 to 1604.

Son of Horio Yoshiharu.

Horio Yoshiharu

Lived 1543 to 1611.

Hori Tadatoshi

Son of Hori Hideharu. Dispossessed in 1610 for maladministration.

Hori Toshishige

Son of Hori Hidemasa.

Hoshi Toru

Lived 1850 to 1901

Hosokawa Akiuji

Died 1352.

Son of Yorisada.

Hosokawa Family

A daimyō family descended from Minamoto Yoshisue.

Hosokawa Harumoto

Lived 1519 to 1563.

Hosokawa Jōzen

Brother of Akiuji.

Hosokawa Katsumoto

Lived 1430 to 11 May 1473.

Hosokawa Kiyouji

Died 1362.

Hosokawa Masamoto

Lived 1466 to 1507.

Hosokawa Mitsumoto

Lived 1358 to 1426.

Hosokawa Mochiyuki

Lived 1400 to 1442.

Hosokawa Morihiro

Prime Minister from 9 August 1993 to 28 April 1994. Replaced by Hata Tsutomu (pg XXX).

Hosokawa Sumimoto

Lived 1496 to 1520.

Hosokawa Ujihara

Died 1387.

Hosokawa Yoriharu

Lived 1299 to 1352.

Hosokawa Yorimoto

Lived 1343 to 1397.

Son of Hosokawa Yoriharu.

Hosokawa Yoriyuki

Lived 1329 to 1392.

Son of Hosokawa Yoriharu.

Hōtoku

Nengō: 1449--1451.

Hotta Family

Daimyō family from Owara. Descended from Takeshiuchi no Sukune.

Hotta Masaharu

Son of Hotta Masatora.

Hotta Masamine

Son of Masataka.

Hotta Masamori

Lived 1608 to 20 April 1651.

Father of Hotta Masatoshi.

Hotta Masamutsu

Lived 1810 to 1864.

Hotta Masanaga

Son of Masamine.

Hotta Masanaka

Lived 1660 to 1694.

Hotta Masanobu

Lived 1629 to 1677.

Son of Hotta Masamori.

Hotta Masanobu

Son of Hotta Masatomo.

Hotta Masataka

Son of Hotta Masatoshi.

Hotta Masatomo

Son of Hotta Masayasu.

Hotta Masatora

Lived 1662 to 1729.

Hotta Masatoshi

Lived 1631 to 28 Aug. 1684.

Hotta Masayasu

Son of Hotta Masanobu.

House of Peers

Hozumi Nobushige

Lived 1856 to 1926

Hyōgo Prefecture

Area: 8,387 km2 (1995)

Capital: Kōbe

Population: 5,420,000 (1996)

Hyūga Province

A province on the east coast of Kyūshū. Today Miyazaki Prefecture. Hyūga bordered on Bungo, Higo, Ōsumi, and Satsuma Provinces.

See Also

Bungo Province (pg. X), Higo Province (pg. X), Kyūshū (pg. X), Miyazaki Prefecture (pg. X), Ōsumi Province (pg. X), Satsuma Province (pg. X),

Ibaraki Castle – Izu Province

Ibaraki Castle

Ibaraki Prefecture

Area: 6,094 km2 (1995)

Capital: Mitō

Population: 2,970,000 (1996)

Ibara Saikaku

see Ihara Saikaku (page XXX)

Ichijō Fusaie

Lived 1445 to 1511.

Ichijō Kanesada

Lived 1542 to 1585.

Ichijō Nobutatsu

Died 1582.

Ichijō-tennō

The 66th emperor of Japan.

Lived 1 June 980 to 22 June 1011.

Reigned 23 June 986 to 13 June 1011.

Ichijō Uchimasa

Lived 1569 to 1580.

Ichikawa Danjūro

The hereditary name of the head of a group (family?) of kabuki actors. There have been at least 12 generations of them. The first was Ebizō, also known as Saigyū.

Ichikawa Fusae

Lived 1893 to 1981.

Iga Province

A province in the area that is today Mie Prefecture. Iga bordered on Ise, Ōmi, Yamato, and Yamashiro Provinces.

See Also

Ise Province (pg. X), Mie Prefecture (pg. X), Ōmi Province (pg. X), Yamato Province (pg. X), Yamashiro Province (pg. X),

Ihara Saikaku

aka Ibara Saikaku

Lived 1642 to 10 Aug. 1693. Born in Ōsaka.

Prolific and popular author during the Tokugawa period. Among other works, he penned: Five Women Who Loved Love, The Life of an Amorous Man, The Life of an Amorous Woman, and This Scheming World.

Ii Naosuke

Lived 29 Oct. 1815 to 3 March 1860.

Born in Ōsaka. Son of Ii Naotaka.

A high ranking official in the Tokugawa government. Naosuke was responsible for the government's signing of treaties with the United States, Britain, France, and later other counties.

Supported the twelve year old Iemochi for shōgun, opposing Hitotsubashi Keiki.

Led the Ansei Purge.

Naosuke's actions caused great resentment and won him many enemies. He was assassinated on 3 March 1860 by 17 Mitō rōnin.

Ikeda Hayato

Lived 1899 to 1965.

Prime Minister from 19 July 1960 to 8 December 1960, 8 December 1960 to 9 December 1963, and 9 December 1963 to 9 November 1964.

Ikeda Nobuteru

Lived 1536 to 1584.

Served Oda Nobuhide, Oda Nobunaga and then Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Received a fief in Settsu and Amagasaki Castle from Nobunaga in 1579. Killed at the Battle of Nagakute.

See Also

Amagasaki Castle (pg. X), Nagakute, Battle of (pg. X), Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Settsu Province (pg. X), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (pg. X),

Iki Province

A province in the area that is today Nagasaki Prefecture. Iki is an island between Hizen Province and the island of Tsushima.

Iki was invaded and overrun by the Mongols in 1274 and 1281.

See Also

Hizen Province (pg. X), Mongol Invasions (pg. X), Nagasaki Prefecture (pg. X), Tsushima Province (pg. X),

Ikkō-Ikki

Imagawa Family

A daimyō family of Seiwa Genji decent.

Imagawa Yoshimoto

Died 1560.

Lost Terabe castle in 1558 when Suzuki Shigeteru left him for Oda Nobunaga and Yoshimoto's vassal Tokugawa Ieyasu was unable to retake the castle.

Yoshimoto was killed in 1560 at the battle of Okehazama, by the forces of Oda Nobunaga.

See Also

Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg. X), Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Terabe, Seige of (pg. X), Suzuki Shigeru (pg. X), Okehazama, Battle of (pg. X),

Imahama Castle

Imperial Rule Assistance Political Association

Imperial Way Faction

The Kodoha or “Imperial Way Faction” was an informally organized right wing association of mostly junior and field grade Imperial Army officers who sought to dismantle party influence in Japanese politics and “restore” the Emperor as an absolute ruler with the army as his main instrument of policy. Heavily influenced by such “Asia for the Asians” political philosophers as Gondo Seikei (1868-1937), Kita Ikki (1883-1937), Okawa Shumei (1886-1957) and the ideology of the Kokyrukai (Amur River or “Black Dragon” Society) political and criminal organization, the Kodoha officers, over 80% of whom were from rural farming and fishing communities, viewed the democratic process and Western-influenced materialism of urban Japanese society at the time as an emasculation and apostasy of traditional values, and they were prepared to use violence to rectify this situation. The Kodoha was effectively crippled as a serious player in the Japanese political power game after a failed coup d'etat attempt by Kodoha officers in February 1936, but not before the theories of its spiritual leader General Sadao Araki had poisoned Japanese educational policy with fanatical militarism, and even more disastrously, not before many of its less-conspicuous members were already well ensconced in fast-track elite course niches that would put them in influential policy-making positions during the crucial Pacific War years.

by M.G. Sheftall

Contributed December 2002

Sources and Suggested Reading

Hirohito by Herbert Bix

Hirohito, Behind the Myth by Edward Behr

Soldier of the Sun by Meirion and Susan Harries

The Way of the Heavenly Sword by Leonard A. Humphreys

Inaba Ittetsu

Inaba Province

A province in the area that is today Tottori Prefecture. Inaba bordered on Harima, Hōki, Mimasaka, and Tajima Provinces.

See Also

Harima Province (pg. X), Hōki Province (pg. X), Mimasaka Province (pg. X), Tajima Province (pg. X), Tottori Province pg. XXX

Ingyō-tennō

The 19th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 412 to 453.

Ino Tadataka

Lived 1745 to 1818.

Inoue Akira

see Inoue Nissho (page XXX)

Inoue Bunda

see Inoue Kaoru (page XXX)

Inoue Junnosuke

Lived 1869 to 1932.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

2nd Yamamoto

Finance

Sep 2, 1923

Jan 7, 1924

Hamaguchi

Finance

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

2nd Wakatsuki

Finance

Apr 14, 1931

Dec 13, 1931

Table 27 Cabinet Positions Held by Inoue Junnosuke

Inoue Kaoru

aka Inoue Bunda

Lived 1835 to 1915.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Itō

Foreign Affairs

Dec 22, 1885

Sep 16, 1887

2nd Itō

Home Affairs

Aug 8, 1892

Oct 15, 1894

2nd Itō

Prime Minister (Acting)

Nov 28, 1892

Feb 6, 1893

3rd Itō

Finance

Jan 12, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

Table 28 Cabinet Positions Held by Inoue Kaoru

Inoue Kowashi

Lived 1843 to 1895.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Itō

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Feb 7, 1888

Apr 30, 1888

Kuroda

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 24, 1889

1st Yamagata

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Dec 24, 1889

May 6, 1891

2nd Itō

Education

Mar 7, 1893

Aug 29, 1894

Table 29 Cabinet Positions Held by Inoue Kowashi

Inoue Nissho

aka Inoue Akira

Lived 1886 to 1967.

Inoue Tetsujiro

Lived 1856 to 1944.

Inukai Tsuyoshi

Lived 20 April 1855 to 15 May 1932.

Prime Minister from 13 December 1931 to 15 May 1932. His cabinet lasted until 26 May 1932.

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Ōkuma

Education

Oct 27, 1898

Nov 8, 1898

2nd Yamamoto

Education

Sep 2, 1923

Sep 6, 1923

2nd Yamamoto

Communications

Sep 2, 1923

Jan 7, 1924

1st Katō

Communications

Jun 11, 1924

May 30, 1925

Inukai

Foreign Affairs

Dec 13, 1931

Jan 14, 1932

Inukai

Prime Minister

Dec 13, 1931

May 15, 1932

Inukai

Home Affairs

Mar 16, 1932

Mar 25, 1932

Table 30 Cabinet Positions Held by Inukai Tsuyoshi

Name

Position

From

To

Inukai Tsuyoshi

Prime Minister

Dec 13, 1931

May 15, 1932

Yamamoto Teijirō

Agriculture & Forestry

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Mori Kaku

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Shimada Toshio

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Hata Toyosuke

Colonization

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Maeda Yonezō

Commerce & Industry

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Mitsuchi Chūzō

Communications

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Hatoyama Ichirō

Education

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Takahashi Korekiyo

Finance

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Inukai Tsuyoshi

Foreign Affairs

Dec 13, 1931

Jan 14, 1932

Yoshizawa Kenkichi

Foreign Affairs

Jan 14, 1932

May 26, 1932

Nakahashi Tokugorō

Home Affairs

Dec 13, 1931

Mar 16, 1932

Inukai Tsuyoshi

Home Affairs

Mar 16, 1932

Mar 25, 1932

Suzuki Kisaburō

Home Affairs

Mar 25, 1932

May 26, 1932

Suzuki Kisaburō

Justice

Dec 13, 1931

Mar 25, 1932

Kawamura Takeji

Justice

Mar 25, 1932

May 26, 1932

Ōsumi Mineo

Navy

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Tokonami Takejirō

Railways

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Araki Sadao

War

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Table 31 Inukai Tsuyoshi's Cabinet

Ioji

Ioji-yama

A mountain in Mikawa Province. In 1575, Takeda Katsuyori and Oda Nobunaga fought part of the Battle of Nagashino on Ioji-yama.

See Also

Mikawa Province (pg. X), Nagashino, Battle of (pg. X), Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Takeda Katsuyori (pg. X),

Ise Province

A province in the area that is today Mie Prefecture. Ise bordered on Iga, Kii, Mino, Ōmi, Owari, Shima, and Yamato Provinces.

Domains

Fief

Koku

Controlled by:

From

To

Matsuzaka

37000

Furuta Shigekatsu

1600


Table 32Domains in Ise Province

See Also

Furuta Shigekatsu (pg. X), Iga Province (pg. X), Kii Province (pg. X), Matsuzaka-han (pg. X), Mie Prefecture (pg. X), Mino Province (pg. X), Ōmi Province (pg. X), Shima Province (pg. X), Yamato Province (pg. X),

Ishibashi Tanzan

Lived 1884 to 1973.

Prime Minister from 23 December 1956 to 25 February 1957.

Ishida Baigan

Lived 1685 to 1744.

Ishida Mitsunari

Japanese: 石田 三成

Lived 1560 to 1600

Born in what is now Shiga Prefecture. Served Toyotomi Hideyoshi from a young age.

Mitsunari was the prime mover behind the anti-Tokugawa coalition (the Western Army) that lost the Battle of Sekigahara. Mitsunari was a better schemer than general or diplomat and this caused some friction in the coalition. At the very least Mitsunari's personality hurt morale among the commanders of the Western army and conceivably contributed to their defeat.

Fled after the defeat at Sekigahara but was captured and beheaded.

See Also

Sekigahara, Battle of (pg 307)

This entry contains some material from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishida_Mitsunari

Ishihara Kanji

see Ishiwara Kanji on page XX.

Ishii Kikujiro

Lived 1866 to 1945.

Ishikawa Prefecture

Area: 4,185 km2 (1995)

Capital: Kanazawa

Population: 1,170,000 (1996)

One of the 47 major administrative units in modern Japan. Ishikawa is located along the Sea of Japan side, right about in the middle. The Noto Peninsula (page XXX), which is part of Ishikawa, juts out into the Sea of Japan and makes it very easy to find Ishikawa on a map.

Ishikawa Sanshiro

Lived 1876 to 1956.

Ishiwara Kanji

aka Ishihara Kanji

Lived 1893 to 1981

Ishiyama Hongan-ji

Seat of the Ikkō sect after the Honganji in Kyotō was destroyed. It took Oda Nobunaga ten years to finally reduce this stronghold.

Ishizawa Taizo

Lived 1886 to 1975.

Itagaki Seishirō

Lived 21 Jan. 1885 to 23 Dec. 1948

Soldier.

Tried as a class `A' war criminal and executed.

Itagaki Taisuke

Lived 1837 to 1919.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

2nd Itō

Home Affairs

Apr 14, 1896

Sep 18, 1896

2nd Matsukata

Home Affairs

Sep 18, 1896

Sep 20, 1896

1st Ōkuma

Home Affairs

Jun 30, 1898

Nov 8, 1898

Table 33 Cabinet Positions Held by Itagaki Taisuke

Itai-Itai-Byō

A Mitsui (chemical?) plant in Gifu Prefecture released cadmium into a river and said cadmium eventually made people in Toyama sick. Doctors understood cadmium to be the cause of the illness in 1957. A movement for redress was started in 1963 and eventually 183 people were recognized by the government as suffering from the disease.

(this entry needs to be double checked as well as a lot more detail)

Itami Castle

Itō Hirobumi

Lived 2 Sept. 1841 to 26 Oct. 1909

Born into a low ranking Chōshū samurai family in 1841. Originally held anti-foreign views but later became anti to bakufu.

Secretly visited England 1863 to 1864.

Held a variety of posts in the Meiji government. Was a member of the Iwakura Mission. By 1881 he was one of the most powerful men in the government and the 1881 political crisis further cemented his power.

Visited Europe in 1882 “to study Western Constitutions” (many people believe he had already decided on the German model). Upon his return, he lead the creation of the peerage system and the cabinet system.

Was Japan's first prime minister.

President of the Privy Council: 1888 to 1890 and 1903 to 1905

Resident-General of the Protectorate of Korea from 1905 to 1909.

Assassinated by a Korean nationalist at Harbin in 1909.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Itō

Prime Minister

Dec 22, 1885

Apr 30, 1888

1st Itō

Foreign Affairs

Sep 16, 1887

Feb 1, 1888

Kuroda

Hanretsu

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 24, 1889

2nd Itō

Prime Minister

Aug 8, 1892

Sep 18, 1896

3rd Itō

Prime Minister

Jan 12, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

4th Itō

Prime Minister

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Table 34 Cabinet Positions Held by Itō Hirobumi

First Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Itō Hirobumi

Prime Minister

Dec 22, 1885

Apr 30, 1888

Tani Kanjō

Agriculture & Commerce

Dec 22, 1885

Jul 26, 1887

Hijikata Hisamoto

Agriculture & Commerce

Jul 26, 1887

Sep 16, 1887

Kurota Kiyotaka

Agriculture & Commerce

Sep 16, 1887

Apr 30, 1888

Tanaka Mitsuaki

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Dec 22, 1885

Apr 30, 1888

Enomoto Takeaki

Communications

Dec 22, 1885

Apr 30, 1888

Inoue Kowashi

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Feb 7, 1888

Apr 30, 1888

Yamao Yōzō

Director of Legislative Bureau

Dec 23, 1885

Feb 7, 1888

Mori Arinori

Education

Dec 22, 1885

Apr 30, 1888

Matsukata Masayoshi

Finance

Dec 22, 1885

Apr 30, 1888

Inoue Kaoru

Foreign Affairs

Dec 22, 1885

Sep 16, 1887

Itō Hirobumi

Foreign Affairs

Sep 16, 1887

Feb 1, 1888

Ōkuma Shigenobu

Foreign Affairs

Feb 1, 1888

Apr 30, 1888

Yamagata Aritomo

Home Affairs

Dec 22, 1885

Apr 30, 1888

Yamada Akiyoshi

Justice

Dec 22, 1885

Apr 30, 1888

Saigō Tsugumichi

Navy

Dec 22, 1885

Jul 10, 1886

Ōyama Iwao

Navy

Jul 10, 1886

Jul 1, 1887

Saigō Tsugumichi

Navy

Jul 1, 1887

Apr 30, 1888

Ōyama Iwao

War

Dec 22, 1885

Apr 30, 1888

Table 35 Itō Hirobumi's First Cabinet

Second Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Itō Hirobumi

Prime Minister

Aug 8, 1892

Sep 18, 1896

Inoue Kaoru

Prime Minister (Acting)

Nov 28, 1892

Feb 6, 1893

Gotō Shōjirō

Agriculture & Commerce

Aug 8, 1892

Jan 22, 1894

Enomoto Takeaki

Agriculture & Commerce

Jan 22, 1894

Sep 18, 1896

Itō Miyoji

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Aug 8, 1892

Sep 18, 1896

Suematsu Kenchō

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Aug 8, 1892

Sep 18, 1896

Takashima Tomonosuke

Colonization

Aug 8, 1892

Sep 18, 1896

Watanabe Kunitake

Communications

Mar 17, 1895

Oct 9, 1895

Shirane Sen'ichi

Communications

Oct 9, 1895

Sep 18, 1896

Kōno Togama

Education

Aug 8, 1892

Mar 7, 1893

Inoue Kowashi

Education

Mar 7, 1893

Aug 29, 1894

Saionji Kinmochi

Education

Oct 3, 1894

Sep 18, 1896

Watanabe Kuniaki

Finance

Aug 8, 1892

Mar 17, 1895

Matsukata Masayoshi

Finance

Mar 17, 1895

Aug 27, 1895

Watanabe Kuniaki

Finance

Aug 27, 1895

Sep 18, 1896

Mutsu Munemitsu

Foreign Affairs

Aug 8, 1892

Jun 5, 1895

Saionji Kinmochi

Foreign Affairs

Jun 5, 1895

Apr 3, 1896

Mutsu Munemitsu

Foreign Affairs

Apr 3, 1896

May 30, 1896

Saionji Kinmochi

Foreign Affairs

May 30, 1896

Sep 18, 1896

Kurota Kiyotaka

Hanretsu

Mar 17, 1895

Sep 18, 1896

Inoue Kaoru

Home Affairs

Aug 8, 1892

Oct 15, 1894

Nomura Yasushi

Home Affairs

Oct 15, 1894

Feb 3, 1896

Yoshikawa Akimasa

Home Affairs

Feb 3, 1896

Apr 14, 1896

Itagaki Taisuke

Home Affairs

Apr 14, 1896

Sep 18, 1896

Yamagata Aritomo

Justice

Aug 8, 1892

Mar 11, 1893

Yoshikawa Akimasa

Justice

Mar 16, 1893

Oct 3, 1894

Nire Kagenori

Navy

Aug 8, 1892

Mar 11, 1893

Saigō Tsugumichi

Navy

Mar 11, 1893

Sep 18, 1896

Ōyama Iwao

War

Aug 8, 1892

Oct 9, 1894

Saigō Tsugumichi

War

Oct 9, 1894

Mar 7, 1895

Yamagata Aritomo

War

Mar 7, 1895

Apr 28, 1895

Saigō Tsugumichi

War

Apr 28, 1895

May 8, 1895

Yamagata Aritomo

War

May 8, 1895

May 26, 1895

Ōyama Iwao

War

May 26, 1895

Sep 18, 1896

Table 36 Itō Hirobumi's Second Cabinet

Third Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Itō Hirobumi

Prime Minister

Jan 12, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

Itō Miyoji

Agriculture & Commerce

Jan 12, 1898

Apr 26, 1898

Kaneko Kentarō

Agriculture & Commerce

Apr 26, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

Samejima Takenosuke

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Jan 12, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

Ume Kenjirō

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Jan 12, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

Suematsu Kenchō

Communications

Jan 12, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

Saionji Kinmochi

Education

Jan 12, 1898

Apr 30, 1898

Toyama Shōichi

Education

Apr 30, 1898

Jun 30, 1988

Inoue Kaoru

Finance

Jan 12, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

Nishi Tokujirō

Foreign Affairs

Jan 12, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

Yoshikawa Akimasa

Home Affairs

Jan 12, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

Sone Arasuke

Justice

Jan 12, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

Saigō Tsugumichi

Navy

Jan 12, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

Katsura Tarō

War

Jan 12, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

Table 37 Itō Hirobumi's Third Cabinet

Fourth Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Itō Hirobumi

Prime Minister

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Hayashi Yūzō

Agriculture & Commerce

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Samejima Takenosuke

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Okuda Yoshindo

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Hoshi Tōru

Communications

Oct 19, 1900

Dec 22, 1900

Hara Kei

Communications

Dec 22, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Matsuda Masahisa

Education

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Watanabe Kunitake

Finance

Oct 19, 1900

May 14, 1901

Saionji Kinmochi

Finance

May 14, 1901

Jun 2, 1901

Katō Takaaki

Foreign Affairs

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Saionji Kinmochi

Hanretsu

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Suematsu Kenchō

Home Affairs

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Kaneko Kentarō

Justice

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Yamamoto Gonnohyōe

Navy

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Katsura Tarō

War

Oct 19, 1900

Dec 23, 1900

Kodama Gentarō

War

Dec 23, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

Table 38Itō Hirobumi's Fourth Cabinet

See Also

Chōshū-han (pg. X), Iwakura Mission (pg. X), Political Crisis of 1881 (pg. X), Table of Prime Ministers (pg. X), Korea, Protectorate of (pg. X), Harbin (pg. X),

Itoku-tennō

The 4th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 510 to 477 B.C.

Itō Miyoji

Lived 7 May 1857 to 19 Feb. 1934.

Politician.

Itō Noe

Lived 21 Jan. 1895 to 16 Sept. 1923

From Fukuoka.

Itō Noe was active in the early 1900's as a feminist and an anarchist.

Joined the Seitosha in 1913.

Lived and worked with the anarchist Ōsugi Sakae from 1916. Less emphasis on feminism and more on anarchism.

Arrested, along with a nephew and Ōsugi, after the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923. All three were murdered by the police shortly afterwards.

See Also

Anarchism (pg. X), Feminism (pg. X), Great Kanto Earthquake (pg. 116), Ōsugi Sakae (pg. 270), Seitosha (pg. X),

Iwaki Province

Today part of Fukushima and Miyagi Prefectures. Iwaki bordered on Hitachi, Iwashiro, Rikuzen, Shimotsuke, and Uzen Provinces.

See Also

Fukushima Prefecture (pg. X), Hitachi Province (pg. X), Iwashiro Province (pg. X), Miyagi Prefecture (pg. X), Rikuzen Province (pg. X), Shimotsuke Province (pg. X), Uzen Province (pg. X),

Iwakura Mission

Lasted from 1871 to 1873

Iwakura Tomomi

Lived 15 Sept. 1825 to 20 July 1883.

Iwami Province

A province in the area that is today part of Shimane Prefecture. Iwami bordered on Aki, Bingo, Izumo, Nagato, and Suō Provinces.

See Also

Aki Province (pg. X), Bingo Province (pg. X), Izumi Province (pg. X), Nagato Province (pg. X), Shimane Prefecture (pg. X), Suō Province (pg. X),

Iwamura, Seige of

Akiyama Nobutomo took the castle from the widow of Tōyama Kagetō.

See Also

Akiyama Nobutomo (pg. X), Tōyama Kagetō (pg. X)

Iwasaki Yataro

Lived 1835 to 1885.

Iwashiro Province

A province in the area that is today Fukushima Prefecture. Iwashiro bordered on Echigo, Iwaki, Kōzuke, Shimotsuke, and Uzen Provinces.

See Also

Echigo Province (pg. X), Fukushima Prefecture (pg. X), Iwaki Province (pg. X), Kōzuke Province (pg. X), Shimotsuke Province (pg. X), Uzen Province (pg. X),

Iwate Prefecture

Area: 15,278 km2 (1995)

Capital: Moriaki

Population: 1,430,000 (1996)

Iyo Province

A province in the area that is today Ehime Prefecture on Shikoku. Iyo bordered on Awa, Sanuki, and Tosa Provinces.

See Also

Awa Province (pg. X), Ehime Prefecture (pg. X), Sanuki Province (pg. X), Shikoku (pg. X), Tosa Province (pg. X),

Izumi Province

A province in the area that is today part of Ōsaka Prefecture. Izumi bordered on Kawachi, Kii, and Settsu Provinces.

See Also

Kawachi Province (pg. X), Kii Province (pg. X), Ōsaka Prefecture (pg. X), Settsu Province (pg. X),

Izumo Province

A province in the area that is today part of Shimane Prefecture. Izumo bordered on Bingo, Hōki, and Iwami Provinces.

See Also

Bingo Province (pg. X), Hōki Province (pg. X), Iwami Province (pg. X), Shimane Prefecture (pg. X),

Izu Province

A province in the area that is today part of Shizuoka Prefecture. Izu bordered on Sagami and Suruga Provinces.

See Also

Sagami Province (pg. X), Shizuoka Prefecture (pg. X), Suruga Province (pg. X),

Japan Communist Party – Jurakutei Castle

Japan Communist Party

Japan Exchange and Teaching Program

aka JET Program

The JET Program brings young people to Japan to act as ALT's (Assistant Language Teachers) in Japanese schools. The program is run by several ministries of the Japanese government, including the Foreign Ministry and Mombusho, the Ministry of Sports, Education, and Culture. Participants, who are selected by a rather opaque process that may involve throwing darts, must have a pulse and a college degree (in what doesn't seem to matter).

Participants are given one year contracts worth about 3 million yen. They may renew this contract upto twice --- thus the maximum stay on the JET Program is three years, although most participants choose to leave after one or two years.

While the government's plan possibly involved sending lots of young people home with wonderful memories of Japan --- PR in other words --- the reality is that the government is sending a lot of foreigners home with memories of how Japan and the Japanese education system really are. Whether this will backfire in the government's collective face remains to be seen.

Japan Fabian Society

Japan Socialist Party

aka JSP

JET Program

see Japan Exchange and Teaching Program on page XXX.

Jian

Nengō: 1021--1023.

aka Chian.

Jiji Shinpō

Jimmu-tennō

The 1st emperor of Japan.

Reigned 660 to 585 B.C.

Mythological of course.

Jingo-keiun

Nengō: 767--769.

Jinki

Nengō: 724--728.

aka Shinki.

Jireki

Nengō: 1065--1068.

aka Chiryaku.

Jishō

Nengō: 1177--1180.

aka Jijō.

Jitō-tennō

Empress.

Lived 645 to 22 Dec. 702.

The 41st ruler of Japan.

Reigned 1 Jan. 690 to 1 Aug. 697.

Jōei

Nengō: 1232--1232.

Jōgan

Nengō: 859--876.

aka Jōkan.

Jōgen (976)

Nengō: 976–977.

aka Teigen.

Jōgen (1207)

Nengō: 1207--1210.

aka Shōgen.

Jōhō

Nengō: 1074--1076.

aka Shōhō.

Jōji

Nengō of the Northern Dynasty: 1362--1367.

Jokan

Nengō:

Jōkyō

Nengō: 1684--1687.

aka Teikyō.

Jōkyū

Nengō: 1219--1221.

aka Shōkyū.

Jomei-tennō

The 34th emperor of Japan.

Lived 593 to 9 Oct. 641.

Reigned 4 Jan. 629 to 9 Oct. 641.

Jōō (1222)

Japanese: 貞応

Nengō: 1222-1223

aka Teiō

Jōō (1652)

Nengō: 1652--1654.

aka Shōō.

Jōtoku

Nengō: 1097--1098.

aka Shōtoku.

Juei

Nengō: 1182--1183.

Junna-tennō

The 53rd emperor of Japan.

Lived 786 to 8 May 840.

Reigned 16 April 823 to 28 Feb. 833.

Junnin-tennō

The 47th emperor of Japan.

Lived 733 to 23 Oct. 765.

Reigned 1 Aug. 758 to 9 Oct. 764.

Juntoku-tennō

The 84th emperor of Japan.

Lived 10 Sept. 1197 to 12 Sept. 1242.

Reigned 25 Nov. 1210 to 20 April 1221.

Jurakutei Castle

In Kyōto. Built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Built (completed?) in 1586. Demolished in 1595.

Kaei – Kyūshū Campaign

Kaei

Nengō: 1848--1853.

Kaga Province

A province in the area that is today part of Ishikawa Prefecture. Kaga bordered on Echizen, Etchū, Hida, and Noto Provinces.

See Also

Echizen Province (pg. X), Etchū Province (pg. X), Hida Province (pg. X), Ishikawa Prefecture (pg. X), Noto Province (pg. X)

Kagawa Prefecture

Area: 1,875 km2 (1995)

Capital: Takamatsu

Population: 1,030,000 (1996)

Kagawa Toyohiko

Lived 1888 to 1960.

Kagen

Nengō: 1303--1305.

Kagoshima City

Japanese: 鹿児島市 (Kagoshima-shi)

The capital of Kagoshima Prefecture.

Kagoshima is at the southwest tip of the Kyūshū. It has been nicknamed the “Naples of Japan” for its bay location, hot weather and impressive volcano, Sakurajima.

As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 554,136 and the density of 1,911.41 persons per km². The total area is 289.91 km².

Kagoshima is a well-equipped cosmopolitan city, with an international airport, a full complement of hotels, large shopping districts and malls, served by trams, and probably the finest Satsuma region cuisine: kibi (tiny fish), tonkatsu (caramelised pork, as opposed to the breaded version encountered elsewhere in Japan), smoked eel, and Karukan (sweet cakes made from steamed yam and rice flour). A large, modern aquarium has been installed on the old docks overlooking the volcano. The exceptional traditional Japanese garden of Senganen (Isoteien) is just outside the city.

History

The British Navy bombarded Kagoshima in 1863 to punish the Satsuma daimyō for the murder of Charles Richardson on the Tōkaidō highway the previous year, and the refusal to pay an indemnity in compensation. (See A Diplomat in Japan by Sir Ernest Satow.)

Japan's industrial revolution may be said to have started here, stimulated by the seventeen young men of Satsuma broke the Tokugawa ban on foreign travel to travel abroad and returned to share the benefits of the best of Western science and technology. They are commemorated in a large statue outside the city's main train station.

Kagoshima was the scene of the last stand of Saigō Takamori, who is famous both for being one of the leaders of the Meiji Restoration and for later leading a revolt against the new government.

Kagoshima was the birthplace of Tōgō Heihachirō, who travelled to England to study naval science between 1871 and 1878. Tōgō's role as Chief Admiral of the Grand Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy in the Russo-Japanese War made him a legend in Japanese military history, and earned him the nickname “Nelson of the Orient” in Britain. He led the Grand Fleet to two startling victories in 1904 and 1905, completely destroying Russia as a naval power in the East, and thereby contributing to the failed revolution in Russia in 1905.

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kagoshima%2C_Kagoshima

Kagoshima Prefecture

Area: 9,186 km2 (1995)

Capital: Kagoshima

Population: 1,800,000 (1996)

Kahō

Nengō: 1094--1095.

Kaifu Toshiki

Prime Minister from 10 August 1989 to 28 February 1990 and again 28 February 1990 to 5 November 1991. Replaced by Miyazawa Kiichi (pg XXX).

Kaika-tennō

The 9th Emperor of Japan.

Lived 200 to 98 B.C. (?)

Reigned 158 to 98 B.C.

The third son of the emperor Kōgen.

With dates like these, this emperor is mythological, and should be taken with a salt tablet.

Kaikei

Kai Province

A province in the area that is today Yamanashi Prefecture. Kai bordered on Kōzuke, Musashi, Sagami, Shinano, and Suruga Provinces.

See Also

Kōzuke Province (pg. X), Musashi Province (pg. X), Sagami Province (pg. X), Shinano Province (pg. X), Suruga Province (pg. X), Yamanashi Prefecture (pg. X),

Kaiseitō

Kajō (848)

Nengō: 848--850.

aka Kashō.

Kajō (1106)

Nengō: 1106--1107.

aka Kashō.

Kakei

Nengō of the Northern Dynasty: 1387--1388.

Kakinomoto no Hitomaru

Lived 685 to 705.

Kakitsu

Nengō: 1441--1443.

Kamakura Period

The Kamakura period is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1185 to 1333. The period marks the governance of the Kamakura shōgunate that was officially established in 1192 by the first Kamakura shōgun Minamoto Yoritomo.

The Kamakura period ended in 1333 with the destruction of the shōgunate and the short reestablishment of imperial rule under th Emperor Go-Daigo by Ashikaga Takauji, Nitta Yoshisada, and Kusunoki Masashige.

The Kamakura period is also said to be the beginning of the Japanese Middle Ages which also includes the Muromachi period and the beginning of the Japanese Feudal Period which lasted until the Meiji Restoration.

Bakufu and the Hojo Regency

The Kamakura period (1185-1333) marks the transition to the Japanese "medieval" era, a nearly 700-year period in which the emperor, the court, and the traditional central government were left intact but were largely relegated to ceremonial functions. Civil, military, and judicial matters were controlled by the bushi class, the most powerful of whom was the de facto national ruler. The term feudalism is generally used to describe this period, being accepted by scholars as applicable to medieval Japan as well as to medieval Europe. Both had land-based economies, vestiges of a previously centralized state, and a concentration of advanced military technologies in the hands of a specialized fighting class. Lords required the loyal services of vassals, who were rewarded with fiefs of their own. The fief holders exercised local military rule and public power related to the holding of land. This period in Japan differed from the old shoen system in its pervasive military emphasis.

Once Minamoto Yoritomo had consolidated his power, he established a new government at his family home in Kamakura. He called his government a bakufu (tent government), but because he was given the title seii taishogun by the emperor, the government is often referred to in Western literature as the shōgunate. Yoritomo followed the Fujiwara form of house government and had an administrative board, a board of retainers, and a board of inquiry. After confiscating Taira estates in central and western Japan, he had the imperial court appoint stewards for the estates and constables for the provinces. As shōgun, Yoritomo was both the steward and the constable general. The Kamakura bakufu was not a national regime, however, and although it controlled large tracts of land, there was strong resistance to the stewards. The regime continued warfare against the Fujiwara in the north, but never brought either the north or the west under complete military control. The old court resided in Kyōto, continuing to hold the land over which it had jurisdiction, while newly organized military families were attracted to Kamakura.

Despite a strong beginning, Yoritomo failed to consolidate the leadership of his family on a lasting basis. Intrafamily contention had long existed within the Minamoto, although Yoritomo had eliminated most serious challengers to his authority. When he died suddenly in 1199, his son Yoriie became shōgun and nominal head of the Minamoto, but Yoriie was unable to control the other eastern bushi families. By the early thirteenth century, a regency had been established for the shōgun by his maternal grandparents-- members of the Hojo family, a branch of the Taira that had allied itself with the Minamoto in 1180. Under the Hojo, the bakufu became powerless, and the shōgun, often a member of the Fujiwara family or even an imperial prince, was merely a figurehead.

With the protector of the emperor a figurehead himself, strains emerged between Kyōto and Kamakura, and in 1221 a war--the Jokyu Incident--broke out between the cloistered emperor and the H j regent. The Hojo forces easily won the war, and the imperial court was brought under direct bakufu control. The shōgun's constables gained greater civil powers, and the court was obliged to seek Kamakura's approval for all of its actions. Although deprived of political power, the court was allowed to retain extensive estates with which to sustain the imperial splendor the bakufu needed to help sanction its rule.

Several significant administrative achievements were made during the Hojo regency. In 1225 the Council of State was established, providing opportunities for other military lords to exercise judicial and legislative authority at Kamakura. The H j regent presided over the council, which was a successful form of collective leadership. The adoption of Japan's first military code of law--the Joei Code--in 1232 reflected the profound transition from court to militarized society. While legal practices in Kyōto were still based on 500-year-old Confucian principles, the Joei Code was a highly legalistic document that stressed the duties of stewards and constables, provided means for settling land disputes, and established rules governing inheritances. It was clear and concise, stipulated punishments for violators of its conditions, and remained in effect for the next 635 years.

As might be expected, the literature of the time reflected the unsettled nature of the period. The Hojoki (An Account of My Hut) describes the turmoil of the period in terms of the Buddhist concepts of impermanence and the vanity of human projects. The Heike monogatari (Tale of the Heike) narrated the rise and fall of the Taira (also known as the Heike), replete with tales of wars and samurai deeds. A second literary mainstream was the continuation of anthologies of poetry in the Shin kokinshu wakashu (New Collection of Ancient and Modern Times), of which twenty volumes were produced between 1201 and 1205.

The Flourishing of Buddhism

In the time of disunity and violence, deepening pessimism increased the appeal of the search for salvation. Kamakura was the age of the great popularization of Buddhism. Two new sects, Jodo (Pure Land) and Zen (Meditation), dominated the period. The old Heian sects had been quite esoteric and appealed more to the intellectuals than to the masses. The Mount Hiei monasteries had become politically powerful but appealed primarily to those capable of systematic study of the sect's teachings. This situation gave rise to the Jodo sect, based on unconditional faith and devotion and prayer to Amida Buddha. Zen rejected all temporal and scriptural authority, stressing moral character rather than intellectual attainments, an emphasis that appealed to the military class. Growing numbers of the military class turned to Zen masters, regarded as embodiments of truth.

Mongol Invasions

The repulsions of two Mongol invasions were momentous events in Japanese history. Japanese relations with China had been terminated in the mid-ninth century after the deterioration of late Tang China and the turning inward of the Heian court. Some commercial contacts were maintained with southern China in later centuries, but Japanese pirates made the open seas dangerous. At a time when the bakufu had little interest in foreign affairs and ignored communications from China and Koryo (as Korea was then known), news arrived in 1268 of a new Mongol regime in Beijing. Its leader, Khubilai Khan, demanded that the Japanese pay tribute to the new Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) and threatened reprisals if they failed to do so. Unused to such threats, Kyōto raised the diplomatic counter of Japan's divine origin, rejected the Mongol demands, dismissed the Korean messengers, and started defensive preparations. After further unsuccessful entreaties, the first Mongol invasion took place in 1274. More than 600 ships carried a combined Mongol, Chinese, and Korean force of 23,000 troops armed with catapults, combustible missiles, and bows and arrows. In fighting, these soldiers grouped in close cavalry formations against samurai, who were accustomed to one-on-one combat. Local Japanese forces at Hakata, on northern Kyūshū, defended against the superior mainland force, which, after one day of fighting was decimated by the onslaught of a sudden typhoon. Khubilai realized that nature, not military incompetence, had been the cause of his forces' failure so, in 1281, he launched a second invasion. Seven weeks of fighting took place in northwestern Kyūshū before another typhoon struck, again destroying the Mongol fleet.

Although Shinto priests attributed the two defeats of the Mongols to a "divine wind" (kamikaze), a sign of heaven's special protection of Japan, the invasion left a deep impression on the bakufu leaders. Long-standing fears of the Chinese threat to Japan were reinforced, and the Korean Peninsula became regarded as "an arrow pointed at the heart of Japan." The Japanese victory, however, gave the bushi a sense of fighting superiority that remained with Japan's soldiers until 1945. The victory also convinced the bushi of the value of the bakufu form of government.

The Mongol war had been a drain on the economy, and new taxes had to be levied to maintain defensive preparations for the future. The invasions also caused disaffection among those who expected recompense for their help in defeating the Mongols. There were no lands or other rewards to be given, however, and such disaffection, combined with overextension and the increasing defense costs, led to a decline of the Kamakura bakufu. Additionally, inheritances had divided family properties, and landowners increasingly had to turn to moneylenders for support. Roving bands of ronin further threatened the stability of the bakufu.

Civil War

The Hojo reacted to the ensuing chaos by trying to place more power among the various great family clans. To further weaken the Kyōto court, the bakufu decided to allow two contending imperial lines--known as the Southern Court or junior line and the Northern Court or senior line--to alternate on the throne. The method worked for several successions until a member of the Southern Court ascended to the throne as Emperor Go-Daigo (r. 1318- 39). Go-Daigo wanted to overthrow the bakufu, and he openly defied Kamakura by naming his own son his heir. In 1331 the bakufu exiled Go-Daigo, but loyalist forces rebelled. They were aided by Ashikaga Takauji (1305-58), a constable who turned against Kamakura when dispatched to put down Go-Daigo's rebellion. At the same time, another eastern chieftain rebelled against the bakufu, which quickly disintegrated, and the Hojo were defeated.

In the swell of victory, Go-Daigo endeavored to restore imperial authority and tenth-century Confucian practices. This period of reform, known as the Kemmu Restoration (1333-36), aimed at strengthening the position of the emperor and reasserting the primacy of the court nobles over the bushi. The reality, however, was that the forces who had arisen against Kamakura had been set on defeating the Hojo, not on supporting the emperor. Ashikaga Takauji finally sided with the Northern Court in a civil war against the Southern Court represented by Go-Daigo. The long War Between the Courts lasted from 1336 to 1392. Early in the conflict, Go-Daigo was driven from Kyōto, and the Northern Court contender was installed by Ashikaga, who became the new shōgun.

See Also

References and Suggested Reading

This article incorporates public domain text from the Library of Congress Country Studies. - Japan located at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html.

Modified from the article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamakura_period

Kamakura Shōgunate

Kambun

Nengō: 1661--1672.

Kameyama-tennō

The 90th emperor of Japan.

Lived 27 May 1249 to 15 Sept. 1305.

Reigned 26 Nov. 1259 to 26 Jan. 1274.

Kamikaze (1)

`Kamikaze' translates to English as `Divine Wind'. It is the name given to the typhoon that destroyed the Mongol fleet supporting that invasion of Japan. The ships lucky enough to survive limped back to Korea and the Mongols never again attempted to invade Japan.

The Japanese interpreted the storm as a sort of divine protection of their islands, thus `kamikaze'.

Kamikaze (2)

In World War II / the Pacific War, kamikaze pilots flew planes specially outfitted with bombs into American ships. It was a last ditch attemp to turn the tide of battle in the Pacific. It was not effective.

Kaminojo, Seige of

Took place in 1562.

Udono Nagamochi (who?) defended the castle for the Imagawa (?). Tokugawa Ieyasu beseiged the castle and was able to take it after using ninja.

Kami

Japan word meaning `god' or something like `spirit' in the sense of `soul' or `divine'. Thus, a kami could be a god (lower case g) or the soul / spirit of a departed person. Basically it is something supernatural that is to be respected (but not feared?).

Kammu-tennō

The 50th emperor of Japan.

Lived 737 to 17 March 806.

Reigned 3 April 781 to 17 March 806.

Kampō

Nengō: 1741--1743.

Kampyō

Nengō: 889--897.

Kanagawa Prefecture

Area: 2,414 km2 (1995)

Capital: Yokohama

Population: 8,170,000 (1996)

Kanayama, Battle of

Kanazawa Castle

Maeda Toshinaga built and resided in Kanazawa Castle.

See Also

Maeda Toshinaga (pg. X),

Kanazawa City

Kanazawa is the capital of Ishikawa Prefecture. Population is roughly 450,000. It is famous for, among other things, its gold-leaf products, Kenrokuen, and the samurai district (the bukeyashiki).

See Also

Kenrokuen (pg. X), Bukeyashiki (Samurai District) (pg. X),

Kan'eiji

Kan'ei

Nengō: 1624--1643.

Kaneko Kentarō

Lived 4 Feb. 1853 to 16 May 1942.

Kan'en

Nengō: 1748--1750.

Kangen

Nengō: 1243--1246.

Kanji

Nengō: 1087--1093.

Kanki

Nengō: 1229--1231.

Kankō

Nengō: 1004--1011.

Kanna

Nengō: 985--986.

aka Kanwa.

Kannin

Nengō: 1017--1020.

Kanno Sugako

aka Kanno Suga.

Lived 1881 to 1911.

Kanno Suga

see Kanno Sugako (page XXX)

Kan'ō

Nengō of the Northern Dynasty: 1350--1351.

Kanō Eitoku

Lived 13 Jan. 1543 to 14 Sept. 1590.

Momoyama era artist.

Kanō Jigorō

Lived 28 Oct. 1860 to 4 May 1938

Kanō Jigorō is credited with creating the modern sport of Judo out of the older and more violent fighting arts of the samurai.

Kansei

Nengō: 1789--1800.

Kanshō

Nengō: 1460--1465.

Kantoku

Nengō: 1044--1045.

Kanwa

Nengō: 985--986.

Also known as Kanna. See that entry for more details.

Kaō

Nengō: 1169--1170.

Kareki

Nengō: 1326--1328.

Also known as Karyaku. See that entry for more details.

Karoku

Nengō: 1225--1226.

Karyaku

Nengō: 1326--1328.

aka Kareki.

Kashō

Nengō: 848--850.

Kataoka Kenkichi

Lived 26 Dec. 1843 (1844?) to 31 Oct. 1903.

Katayama Sen

Lived 3 Dec. 1859 (1860) to 5 Nov. 1933.

Katayama Tetsu

Lived 28 July 1887 to 30 May 1978.

Prime Minister from 24 May 1947 to 10 March 1948. Was also briefly Minister of Agriculture and Forestry in his own cabinet --- from 4 November 1947 13 December 1947.

Katei

Nengō: 1235--1237.

Katō Hiroyuki

Lived 23 June 1836 to 9 Feb 1916.

Kato Kazue

see Misora Hibari on page XXX.

Katō Komei

see Katō Takaaki on page XXX.

Katō Takaaki

aka Katō Komei.

Lived 3 Jan. 1860 to 28 Jan 1926.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

4th Itō

Foreign Affairs

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

1st Saionji

Foreign Affairs

Jan 7, 1906

Mar 3, 1906

3rd Katsura

Foreign Affairs

Jan 29, 1913

Feb 20, 1913

2nd Ōkuma

Foreign Affairs

Apr 16, 1914

Aug 10, 1915

1st Katō (Takaaki)

Prime Minister

Jun 11, 1924

Aug 2, 1925

2nd Katō (Takaaki)

Prime Minister

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Table 39Cabinet Positions Held by Katō Takaaki

First Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Katō Takaaki

Prime Minister

Jun 11, 1924

Aug 2, 1925

Takahashi Korekiyo

Agriculture & Commerce

Jun 11, 1924

Apr 1, 1925

Takahashi Korekiyo

Agriculture & Forestry

Apr 1, 1925

Apr 17, 1925

Okazaki Kunisuke

Agriculture & Forestry

Apr 17, 1925

Aug 2, 1925

Egi Tasuku

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Jun 11, 1924

Aug 2, 1925

Tsukamoto Seiji

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Jun 11, 1924

Aug 2, 1925

Takahashi Korekiyo

Commerce & Industry

Apr 1, 1925

Apr 17, 1925

Noda Utarō

Commerce & Industry

Apr 17, 1925

Aug 2, 1925

Inukai Tsuyoshi

Communications

Jun 11, 1924

May 30, 1925

Adachi Kenzō

Communications

May 31, 1925

Aug 2, 1925

Okada Ryōhei

Education

Jun 11, 1924

Aug 2, 1925

Hamaguchi Osachi

Finance

Jun 11, 1924

Aug 2, 1925

Shidehara Kijurō

Foreign Affairs

Jun 11, 1924

Aug 2, 1925

Wakatsuki Reijirō

Home Affairs

Jun 11, 1924

Aug 2, 1925

Yokota Sennosuke

Justice

Jun 11, 1924

Feb 5, 1925

Takahashi Korekiyo

Justice

Feb 5, 1925

Feb 9, 1925

Ogawa Heikichi

Justice

Feb 9, 1925

Aug 2, 1925

Takarabe Takeshi

Navy

Jun 11, 1924

Aug 2, 1925

Sengoku Mitsugu

Railways

Jun 11, 1924

Aug 2, 1925

Ugaki Kazushige

War

Jun 11, 1924

Aug 2, 1925

Table 40 Katō Takaaki's First Cabinet

Second Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Katō Takaaki

Prime Minister

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Hayami Seiji

Agriculture & Forestry

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Tsukamoto Seiji

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Yamakawa Tadao

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Kataoka Naoharu

Commerce & Industry

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Adachi Kenzō

Communications

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Okada Ryōhei

Education

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Hamaguchi Osachi

Finance

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Shidehara Kijurō

Foreign Affairs

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Wakatsuki Reijirō

Home Affairs

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Egi Tasuku

Justice

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Takarabe Takeshi

Navy

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Sengoku Mitsugu

Railways

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Ugaki Kazushige

War

Aug 2, 1925

Jan 30, 1926

Table 41Katō Takaaki's Second Cabinet

Katō Tomosaburō

Lived 1861 to 1923.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

2nd Ōkuma

Navy

Aug 10, 1915

Oct 9, 1916

Terauchi

Navy

Oct 9, 1916

Sep 29, 1918

Hara

Navy

Sep 29, 1918

Nov 13, 1912

Takahashi

Navy

Nov 13, 1921

Jun 12, 1922

Katō (Tomosaburō)

Navy

Jun 12, 1922

May 15, 1923

Katō (Tomosaburō)

Prime Minister

Jun 12, 1922

Sep 2, 1923

Table 42 Cabinet Positions Held by Katō Tomosaburō

Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Katō Tomosaburō

Prime Minister

Jun 12, 1922

Sep 2, 1923

Arai Kentarō

Agriculture & Commerce

Jun 12, 1922

Sep 2, 1923

Miyata Mitsuo

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Jun 12, 1922

Sep 2, 1923

Baba Eiichi

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Jun 12, 1922

Sep 2, 1923

Maeda Toshisada

Communications

Jun 12, 1922

Sep 2, 1923

Kamata Eikichi

Education

Jun 12, 1922

Sep 2, 1923

Ichiki Otohiko

Finance

Jun 12, 1922

Sep 2, 1923

Uchida Kōsai

Foreign Affairs

Jun 12, 1922

Sep 2, 1923

Mizuno Rentarō

Home Affairs

Jun 12, 1922

Sep 2, 1923

Okano Keijirō

Justice

Jun 12, 1922

Sep 2, 1923

Katō Tomosaburō

Navy

Jun 12, 1922

May 15, 1923

Takarabe Takeshi

Navy

May 15, 1923

Sep 2, 1923

Ōki Enkichi

Railways

Jun 12, 1922

Sep 2, 1923

Yamanashi Hanzō

War

Jun 12, 1922

Sep 2, 1923

Table 43 Katō Tomosaburō's Cabinet

Katsu Awa

see Katsu Kaishu on page XXX

Katsu Kaishu

aka Katsu Awa

aka Katsu Rintaro

Lived 1823 to 1899.

Katsura Tarō

Lived 28 Nov 1847 to 10 Oct 1913.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

3rd Itō

War

Jan 12, 1898

Jun 30, 1898

1st Ōkuma

War

Jun 30, 1898

Nov 8, 1898

2nd Yamagata

War

Nov 8, 1898

Oct 19, 1900

4th Itō

War

Oct 19, 1900

Dec 23, 1900

1st Katsura

Prime Minister

Jun 2, 1901

Jan 7, 1906

1st Katsura

Home Affairs

Oct 12, 1903

Feb 20, 1904

1st Katsura

Foreign Affairs

Jul 3, 1905

Oct 18, 1905

1st Katsura

Foreign Affairs

Nov 4, 1905

Jan 2, 1906

1st Katsura

Education

Dec 14, 1905

Jan 7, 1906

2nd Katsura

Prime Minister

Jul 14, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

2nd Katsura

Finance

Jul 14, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

3rd Katsura

Foreign Affairs

Dec 21, 1912

Jan 29, 1913

3rd Katsura

Prime Minister

Dec 21, 1912

Feb 20, 1913

Table 44Cabinet Positions Held by Katsura Tarō

First Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Katsura Tarō

Prime Minister

Jun 2, 1901

Jan 7, 1906

Hirata Tōsuke

Agriculture & Commerce

Jun 2, 1901

Jul 17, 1903

Kiyoura Keigo

Agriculture & Commerce

Jul 17, 1903

Jan 7, 1906

Shibata Kamon

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Jun 2, 1901

Jan 7, 1906

Okuda Yoshindo

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Jun 2, 1901

Sep 26, 1902

Ichiki Kitokurō

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Sep 26, 1902

Jan 7, 1906

Yoshikawa Akimasa

Communications

Jun 2, 1901

Jul 17, 1903

Sone Arasuke

Communications

Jul 17, 1903

Sep 22, 1903

Ōura Kanetake

Communications

Sep 22, 1903

Jan 7, 1906

Kikuchi Dairoku

Education

Jun 2, 1901

Jul 17, 1903

Kodama Gentarō

Education

Jul 17, 1903

Sep 22, 1903

Kubota Yuzuru

Education

Sep 22, 1903

Dec 14, 1905

Katsura Tarō

Education

Dec 14, 1905

Jan 7, 1906

Sone Arasuke

Finance

Jun 2, 1901

Jan 7, 1906

Sone Arasuke

Foreign Affairs

Jun 2, 1901

Sep 21, 1901

Komura Jūtarō

Foreign Affairs

Sep 21, 1901

Jul 3, 1905

Komura Jūtarō

Foreign Affairs

Jan 2, 1905

Jan 7, 1905

Katsura Tarō

Foreign Affairs

Jul 3, 1905

Oct 18, 1905

Komura Jūtarō

Foreign Affairs

Oct 18, 1905

Nov 4, 1905

Katsura Tarō

Foreign Affairs

Nov 4, 1905

Jan 2, 1906

Utsumi Tadakatsu

Home Affairs

Jun 2, 1901

Jul 15, 1903

Kodama Gentarō

Home Affairs

Jul 15, 1903

Oct 12, 1903

Katsura Tarō

Home Affairs

Oct 12, 1903

Feb 20, 1904

Yoshikawa Akimasa

Home Affairs

Feb 20, 1904

Sep 16, 1905

Kiyoura Keigo

Home Affairs

Sep 16, 1905

Jan 7, 1906

Kiyoura Keigo

Justice

Jun 2, 1901

Sep 22, 1903

Hatano Takanao

Justice

Sep 22, 1903

Jan 7, 1906

Yamamoto Gonnohyōe

Navy

Jun 2, 1901

Jan 7, 1906

Kodama Gentarō

War

Jun 2, 1901

Mar 27, 1902

Terauchi Masatake

War

Mar 27, 1902

Jan 7, 1906

Table 45 Katsura Tarō's First Cabinet

Second Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Katsura Tarō

Prime Minister

Jul 14, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

Ōura Kanetake

Agriculture & Commerce

Jul 14, 1908

Mar 26, 1910

Komatsubara Eitarō

Agriculture & Commerce

Mar 28, 1910

Sep 3, 1910

Ōura Kanetake

Agriculture & Commerce

Sep 3, 1910

Aug 30, 1911

Shibata Kamon

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Jul 14, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

Yasuhiro Ban'ichirō

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Jul 14, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

Gotō Shinpei

Communications

Jul 14, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

Komatsubara Eitarō

Education

Jul 14, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

Katsura Tarō

Finance

Jul 14, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

Terauchi Masatake

Foreign Affairs

Jul 14, 1908

Aug 27, 1908

Komura Jūtarō

Foreign Affairs

Aug 27, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

Hirata Tōsuke

Home Affairs

Jul 14, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

Okabe Nagamoto

Justice

Jul 14, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

Saitō Makoto

Navy

Jul 14, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

Terauchi Masatake

War

Jul 14, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

Table 46Katsura Tarō's Second Cabinet

Third Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Katsura Tarō

Prime Minister

Dec 21, 1912

Feb 20, 1913

Nakakōji Ren

Agriculture & Commerce

Dec 21, 1912

Feb 20, 1913

Egi Tasuku

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Dec 21, 1912

Feb 20, 1913

Ichiki Kitokurō

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Dec 21, 1912

Feb 20, 1913

Gotō Shinpei

Communications

Dec 21, 1912

Feb 20, 1913

Shibata Kamon

Education

Dec 21, 1912

Feb 20, 1913

Wakatsuki Reijirō

Finance

Dec 21, 1912

Feb 20, 1913

Katsura Tarō

Foreign Affairs

Dec 21, 1912

Jan 29, 1913

Katō Takaaki

Foreign Affairs

Jan 29, 1913

Feb 20, 1913

Ōura Kanetake

Home Affairs

Dec 21, 1912

Feb 20, 1913

Matsumuro Itaru

Justice

Dec 21, 1912

Feb 20, 1913

Saitō Makoto

Navy

Dec 21, 1912

Feb 20, 1913

Kigoshi Yasutsuna

War

Dec 21, 1912

Feb 20, 1913

Table 47Katsura Tarō's Third Cabinet

Katsu Rintaro

see Katsu Kaishu on page XXX.

Kawachi Province

A province in the area that is today a part of Ōsaka Prefecture. Kawachi bordered on Izumi, Kii, Settsu, Yamashiro, and Yamato Provinces.

See Also

Izumi Province (pg. X), Kii Province (pg. X), Ōsaka Prefecture (pg. X), Settsu Province (pg. X), Yamashiro Province (pg. X), Yamato Province (pg. X),

Kawaji Toshiyoshi

Kawakami Hajime

Lived 1879 to 1946.

Kawamoto Daisaku

Kawanakajima, Battles of

Between 1553 and 1563, Takeda Shingen and Uesugi Kenshin fought each other several times in the Kawanakajima area of northeastern Shinano. None of the battles was particularly decisive and according to Sansom21 [sansom_1961] none of the men involved showed any signs of military genius, leading Sansom to conclude that Shingen and Kenshin were not entirely deserving of their reputations.

See Also

Shinano Province (pg. X), Takeda Shingen (pg. X), Uesugi Kenshin (pg. X),

Kazan-tennō

The 65th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 984 to 986.

Kazusa Province

A province in the area that is today a part of Chiba Prefecture. Kazusa bordered on Awa and Shimōsa Provinces.

See Also

Awa Province (pg. X), Chiba Prefecture (pg. X), Shimōsa Province (pg. X),

Keian

Nengō: 1648--1651.

Keichō

Nengō: 1596--1614.

Keikō-tennō

The 12th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 71 to 130.

Keiō

Nengō: 1865--1867.

Keitai-tennō

The 26th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 507 to 531.

Keiun

Nengō: 704--707.

Kemmu

Nengō: 1334--1335.

This one needs some explanation soon.

Kempō

Nengō: 1213--1218.

Kenchō

Nengō: 1249--1255.

Ken'ei

Nengō: 1206--1206.

Kengen

Nengō: 1302--1302.

Kenji

Nengō: 1275--1277.

Kenkyū

Nengō: 1190--1198.

Kennin

Nengō: 1201--1203.

Kenrokuen

A famous garden / park in Kanazawa, Ishikawa-ken. The garden was once part of the Maeda family lands, situated near the castle. It is now one of the three most famous gardens in Japan and a major tourist attraction.

See Also

Kanazawa Castle (pg. X), Kanazawa City (pg. X), Maeda Family (pg. X),

Kenryaku

Nengō: 1211--1212.

Kenseikai

Ken

see Prefectures on page XXX.

Kentoku

Nengō: 1370--1371.

Kenzō-tennō

The 23rd emperor of Japan.

Reigned 485 to 487.

Kido Kōichi

Lived 18 July 1889 to 6 April 1977. Grandson of Kido Kōin.

Lord Privy Seal from 1940 to 1945.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

First Konoe

Education

Oct 22, 1937

May 26, 1938

First Konoe

Welfare

Jan 11, 1938

Jan 5, 1939

Hiranuma

Home Affairs

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Table 48 Cabinet Positions Held by Kido Kōichi

Tried as a Class `A' War Criminal. Released from his sentence of life imprisonment in 1953 for reasons of health. But managed to hang on for another 24 years.

Kido Kōin

aka Kido Takayoshi and Katsura Kogorō.

Lived 26 June 1833 to 26 May 1877. Grandfather of Kido Kōichi.

Active in the Meiji Restoration. Played a prominent role in the abolition of the han. Was a member of the Iwakura Mission.

See Also

Abolition of the Domains (pg. X), Iwakura Mission (pg. X), Meiji Restoration (pg. X),

Kido Takayoshi

See Kido Kōin, on page XXX.

Kii Province

A province in the area that is today a part of Mie and Wakayama Prefectures. Kii bordered on Ise, Izumi, Kawachi, Shima, and Yamato Provinces.

See Also

Ise Province (pg. X), Kawachi Province (pg. X), Mie Prefecture (pg. X), Shima Province (pg. X), Wakayama Prefecture (pg. X), Yamato Province (pg. X)

Kikkawa Motoharu

Lived 1530 to 15 Nov. 1586.

A son of Mōri Motonari. Adopted by Kikkawa Okitsune. Motoharu was the father of Motonaga (his heir), Motouji, Hiroie, and Hiromasa.

Kimmei-tennō

The Xxth emperor of Japan.

Died 571. Reigned 539 to 571.

Kim Ok-kyun

Kindai Shiso

Journal whose name translates as Modern Thought.

Kinkakuji

Often called “The Golden Pavillion” in English.

Kinokuniya Bunzaemon

Lived 1669(?) to 24 April 1734.

Kinoshita Iesada

Kinoshita Naoe

Lived 8 Sept. 1869 to 5 Nov. 1937.

A native of Nagano. Novelist. Christian.

Kira Family

Kishida Toshiko

Lived 1864 to 1901.

Kishi Nobusuke

Lived 13 Nov. 1896 to 7 Aug. 1987.

Politician. Native of Yamaguchi.

Prime Minister from 25 February 1957 to 12 June 1958 and 12 June 1958 to 19 July 1960.

Kitagawa Utamaro

Lived 1753 to 1806.

Kita Ikki

Lived 1883 to 1937.

Kiyomizudera

A famous temple in Kyōto.

Kiyoura Keigo

Lived 14 Feb. 1850 to 5 Nov. 1942.

Politician.

Prime Minister from 7 January 1924 to 11 June 1924.

Kizugawa, Battle of

Koan

A zen riddle used by some sects as a way of obtaining enlightenment. (There has to be a better way to word that.) A famous English example is “What is the sound of one hand clapping?”

Kōan (1278)

Nengō: 1278--1287.

The highlight of this nengō would have to be the mongol invasion of 1281. See Mongol Invasions on page XX.

Kōan (1361)

Nengō of the Northern Dynasty: 1361--1362.

Kōan no Eki

The Japanese name for the war against the Mongol invaders in 1281. For more information, see Mongol Invasions on page XX.

Kōan-tennō

The 6th emperor of Japan. Reigned 392 to 291 B.C. As you might surmise from the dates, a mythological emperor.

Kobayakawa Family

A samurai family descended from Doi Sanehira (pg. X). They served the Mōri and grew in influence and power after Mōri Motonari's (pg. X) son Takakage was adopted into the family.

Kobayakawa Hideaki

Lived 1577 (1582?) to 18 Oct. 1602.

Born the 5th son of Kinoshita Iesada but was adopted by Hideyoshi. In 1592 he was adopted by Kobayakawa Takakage and became his heir.

In 1597 at age 20, Hideaki was given command of the invasion of Korea. The fighting in Korea did not go well and Ishida Mitsunari denounced Hideaki, calling him incompetent. In the resulting friction between Hideaki and Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu successfully acted as mediator to bring them together again.

After Hideyoshi's death, Hideaki was courted by both Ishida Mitsunari and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Although Hideaki originally thought to side with Ieyasu, he was later persuaded to support Hideyoshi's heir Hideyori. However, at Sekigahara, after hours of apparent indecision, Hideaki choose Tokugawa over Ishida and helped give the victory to Ieyasu.

See Also

Kinoshita Iesada (pg. X), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (pg. X), Kobayakawa Takakage (pg. X), Korea, Invasion of (pg. X), Ishida Mitsunari (pg. X), Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg. X), Toyotomi Hideyori (pg. X), Sekigahara, Battle of (pg. X)

Kobayakawa Hidekane

Lived 1566 to 1601.

The 9th son of Mōri Motonari. Unclear exactly how he ended up a Kobayakawa.

Kobayakawa Takakage

Lived 1532 (1533?) to 12 June 1597.

The 3rd son of Mōri Motonari, Takakage was adopted by the Kobayakawa family.

Takakage fought in many battles and held his own against even the armies of Oda Nobunaga and Hideyoshi.

Fought in Hideyoshi's campaigns in Korea.

Takakage had no children so in 1592, Hideyoshi gave him his nephew Hideaki as adopted son.

See Also

Mōri Motonari (pg. X), Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (pg. X), Toyotomi Hideaki (pg. X)

Kobayashi Ichizo

Lived 1873 to 1957.

Kōbe City

Capital of Hyōgo Prefecture (pg XX).

Kobiyama Naoto

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Suzuki K.

Transport & Communications

Apr 11, 1945

May 19, 1945

Suzuki K.

Transport

May 19, 1945

Aug 17, 1945

Higashikuni

Transport

Aug 17, 1945

Oct 9, 1945

Table 49Cabinet Positions Held by Kobiyama Naoto

Kōbu Gattai

Kōbun-tennō

The 39th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 671 to 672.

Kōchi City

Capital city of Kōchi Prefecture.

Kōchi Prefecture

Area: 7,104 km2 (1995)

Capital: Kōchi

Population: 830,000 (1996)

Kōchō

Nengō: 1261--1263.

Kodama Gentarō

Lived 1852 to 1906.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

4th Itō

War

Dec 23, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

1st Katsura

War

Jun 2, 1901

Mar 27, 1902

1st Katsura

Home Affairs

Jul 15, 1903

Oct 12, 1903

1st Katsura

Education

Jul 17, 1903

Sep 22, 2003

Table 50Cabinet Positions Held by Kodama Gentarō

Kodama Hideo

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Terauchi

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Oct 9, 1916

Sep 29, 1918

Okada

Colonization

Oct 25, 1934

Mar 9, 1936

Hayashi

Communications

Feb 10, 1937

Jun 4, 1937

Yonai

Home Affairs

Jan 16, 1940

Jul 22, 1940

Koiso

State

Jul 22, 1944

Feb 10, 1945

Koiso

Education

Jan 26, 1945

Apr 7, 1945

Table 51Cabinet Positions Held by Kodama Hideo

Kodama Yoshio

Born 1911.

Kodoha

See “Imperial Way Faction” on page XX.

Kōei

Nengō of the Northern Dynasty: 1342--1344.

Kō Family

A samurai family that served the Ashikaga.

Kōfu City

Capital city of Yamanashi Prefecture (pg. X).

Kofukuji

Kofukuji, Battle of

Kofun

The Kofun period (ca. A.D. 250-ca. 600) takes its name, which means “old tomb” from the culture's rich funerary rituals and distinctive earthen mounds. The mounds contained large stone burial chambers, many of which were shaped like keyholes and some of which were surrounded by moats. By the late Kofun period, the distinctive burial chambers, originally used by the ruling elite, also were built for commoners.

During the Kofun period, a highly aristocratic society with militaristic rulers developed. Its horse-riding warriors wore armor, carried swords and other weapons, and used advanced military methods like those of Northeast Asia. Evidence of these advances is seen in funerary figures (called haniwa; literally, clay rings), found in thousands of kofun scattered throughout Japan. The most important of the haniwa were found in southern Honshu --- especially the Kinai region around Nara --- and northern Kyūshū. Haniwa grave offerings were made in numerous forms, such as horses, chickens, birds, fans, fish, houses, weapons, shields, sunshades, pillows, and male and female humans. Another funerary piece, the magatama, became one of the symbols of the power of the imperial house.

The Kofun period was a critical stage in Japan's evolution toward a more cohesive and recognized state. This society was most developed in the Kinai Region and the easternmost part of the Inland Sea (Seto Naikai), and its armies established a foothold on the southern tip of Korea. Japan's rulers of the time even petitioned the Chinese court for confirmation of royal titles; the Chinese, in turn, recognized Japanese military control over parts of the Korean peninsula.

The Yamato polity, which emerged by the late fifth century, was distinguished by powerful great clans or extended families, including their dependents. Each clan was headed by a patriarch who performed sacred rites to the clan's kami to ensure the long-term welfare of the clan. Clan members were the aristocracy, and the kingly line that controlled the Yamato court was at its pinnacle.

More exchange occurred between Japan and the continent of Asia late in the Kofun period. Buddhism was introduced from Korea, probably in A.D. 538, exposing Japan to a new body of religious doctrine. The Soga, a Japanese court family that rose to prominence with the accession of the Emperor Kimmei about A.D. 531, favored the adoption of Buddhism and of governmental and cultural models based on Chinese Confucianism. But some at the Yamato court --- such as the Nakatomi family, which was responsible for performing Shinto rituals at court, and the Mononobe, a military clan --- were set on maintaining their prerogatives and resisted the alien religious influence of Buddhism. The Soga introduced Chinese-modeled fiscal policies, established the first national treasury, and considered the Korean peninsula a trade route rather than an object of territorial expansion. Acrimony continued between the Soga and the Nakatomi and Mononobe clans for more than a century, during which the Soga temporarily emerged ascendant.

The Kofun period is seen as ending by around A.D. 600, when the use of elaborate kofun by the Yamato and other elite fell out of use because of prevailing new Buddhist beliefs, which put greater emphasis on the transience of human life. Commoners and the elite in outlying regions, however, continued to use kofun until the late seventh century, and simpler but distinctive tombs continued in use throughout the following period.

The Yamato state evolved still further during the Asuka period, which is named after the Asuka region, south of modern Nara, the site of numerous temporary imperial capitals established during the period. The Asuka period is known for its significant artistic, social, and political transformations, which had their origins in the late Kofun period.

Credits:

The article is originally based on materials from Library of Congress: Country Study

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://www.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Kofun

Kōgen

Nengō: 1256--1256.

Kōgen-tennō

The 8th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 214 to 158 B.C.

Kōgyoku-tennō

An empress. The 35th ruler of Japan.

Reigned 642 to 645.

Kōhei

Nengō: 1058--1064.

Kōhō

Nengō: 964--967.

Koiso Kuniaki

Lived 1 April 1880 to 3 Nov. 1950 (1955?).

Indicted as a class 'A' war criminal.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Hiranuma

Colonization

Apr 7, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Yonai

Colonization

Jan 16, 1940

Jul 22, 1940

Koiso

Prime Minister

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Table 52Cabinet Positions Held by Koiso Kuniaki

Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Koiso Kuniaki

Prime Minister

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Shimada Toshio

Agriculture & Commerce

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Miura Kunio

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Jul 22, 1944

Jul 29, 1944

Tanaka Takeo

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Jul 29, 1944

Feb 10, 1945

Hirose Hisatada

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Feb 10, 1945

Feb 21, 1945

Ishiwata Sōtarō

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Feb 21, 1945

Apr 7, 1945

Miura Kunio

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Ninomiya Harushige

Education

Jul 22, 1944

Jan 26, 1945

Kodama Hideo

Education

Jan 26, 1945

Apr 7, 1945

Ishiwata Sōtarō

Finance

Jul 22, 1944

Feb 21, 1945

Tsushima Juichi

Finance

Feb 21, 1945

Apr 7, 1945

Shigemitsu Mamoru

Foreign Affairs

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Ōdachi Shigeo

Home Affairs

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Shigemitsu Mamoru

Greater East Asia

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Matsuzaka Hiromasa

Justice

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Fujihara Ginjirō

Munitions

Jul 22, 1944

Dec 19, 1944

Yoshida Shigeru

Munitions

Dec 19, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Yonai Mitsumasa

Navy

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Kodama Hideo

State

Jul 22, 1944

Feb 10, 1945

Ogata Taketora

State

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Machida Chūji

State

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Kobayashi Seizō

State

Dec 19, 1944

Mar 1, 1945

Hirose Hisatada

State

Feb 10, 1945

Feb 21, 1945

Ishiwata Sōtarō

State

Feb 21, 1945

Apr 7, 1945

Maeda Yonezō

Transport & Communications

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Sugiyama Gen

War

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Hirose Hisatada

Welfare

Jul 22, 1944

Feb 10, 1945

Aikawa Katsuroku

Welfare

Feb 10, 1945

Apr 7, 1945

Table 53Koiso Kuniaki's Cabinet

Koizumi Jun'ichirō

Prime Minister from 26 April 2001 to the present.

Kōji (1142)

Nengō: 1142--1143.

Kōji (1555)

Nengō: 1555--1557.

Kōka

Nengō: 1844--1847.

Kōkaku-tennō

The 119th emperor of Japan.

Lived 15 Aug 1771 to 19 Nov 1840.

Reigned 25 Nov 1779 (1780?) to 22 March 1817.

Kokawadera

Kōke

Literally “High Families,” kōke was the name given to a group of special ex-daimyō families during the Tokugawa period. These families held no lands but received a small stipend from the shōgunate. The system was instituted in 1608 (1603?) and there were eventually about 26 kōke families.

Several duties / offices in the bakufu government were reserved for members of these families.

Some of the kōke families were:

Family

Page

Family

Page

Hatakeyama


Imagawa


Kira


Oda


Ōsawa


Ōtomo


Takeda


Yokose


Yura




Table 54Kōke Families

Also see Omote-kōke, pg XX. But there is not currently anything there.

Kōken-tennō

An empress. The 46th ruler of Japan.

Lived 718 to 4 Aug. 770.

Reigned 2 July 749 to 1 Aug. 758.

Also reigned 9 Oct. 764 to 4 Aug. 770 as Shōtoku-tennō (pg. 320),the 48th ruler of Japan.

Kōkoku

Nengō: 1340--1345.

Kōkō-tennō

The 58th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 884 to 887.

Koku

A unit of volume, equal to roughly 180 liters. This was theoretically enough rice for one man for one year.

Land was classified by how many koku of rice it could produce. Thus daimyō could be ranked based on how many koku the lands they controlled could produce. This in turn allowed leaders like Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu to punish or reward their followers by moving them to fiefs that produced more or less rice.

To qualify as a daimyō, a man had to control lands producing at least 10,000 koku. Many daimyō had just that while a few (like the Tokugawa and the Maeda) controlled hundreds of thousands of koku.

Hideyoshi instituted a nationwide and very thorough program of land classification in the 1580s and 1590s. (check dates)

Kokumin Domei

Kokuryūkai

Kōmei-tennō

The 121th emperor of Japan.

Lived 14 June 1831 to 25 Dec 1866.

Reigned 13 Feb 1846 (1847?) to 25 Dec 1866.

Kō Moroaki

Son of Kō Moronao.

Kō Morofuyu

Son of Kō Moroshige.

Kō Moromochi

Son of Kō Moroshige.

Kō Moronao

Died in 1351.

Served Ashikaga Takauji (pg XX) for many years. Fought and won several battles, but lost to Ashikaga Tadayoshi (pg XX) in 1531 and was killed trying to get away.

Kō Moronatsu

Son of Kō Moronao.

Kō Moroshige

Father of Moronao, Moroshige, Moroyasu, and Moromochi.

Kō Moroyasu

Son of Kō Moroshige.

Assassinated in 1351.

Kō Moroyo

Son of Kō Moroyasu.

Died with his father in 1351.

Kōno Togama

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Matsukata

Agriculture & Commerce

Mar 14, 1892

Jul 14, 1892

1st Matsukata

Justice

Jun 23, 1892

Aug 8, 1892

1st Matsukata

Home Affairs

Jul 14, 1892

Aug 8, 1892

Table 55Cabinet Positions Held by Kōno Togama

Komura Jūtarō

Lived 1855 to 1911.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Katsura

Foreign Affairs

Sep 21, 1901

Jul 3, 1905

1st Katsura

Foreign Affairs

Jan 2, 1905

Jan 7, 1905

1st Katsura

Foreign Affairs

Oct 18, 1905

Nov 4, 1905

2nd Katsura

Foreign Affairs

Aug 27, 1908

Aug 30, 1911

Table 56Cabinet Positions Held by Komura Jūtarō

Kōnin-tennō

The 49th emperor of Japan. Reigned 770 to 781.

Kōnin

Nengō: 810--823.

Kono Binken

see Kono Togama on page XX.

Konoe Fumimaro

Lived 12 Oct 1891 to 16 Dec 1945.

Believing he was going to be arrested as a war criminal, Fumimaro committed suicide in 1945.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Konoe

Prime Minister

Jun 4, 1937

Jan 5, 1939

1st Konoe

Colonization

Sep 30, 1938

Oct 29, 1938

1st Konoe

Foreign Affairs

Sep 30, 1938

Oct 29, 1938

Hiranuma

Hanretsu

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

2nd Konoe

Agriculture & Forestry

Jul 22, 1940

Jul 24, 1940

2nd Konoe

Prime Minister

Jul 22, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

3rd Konoe

Justice

Jul 18, 1941

Jul 25, 1941

3rd Konoe

Prime Minister

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Higashikuni

State

Aug 17, 1945

Oct 9, 1945

Table 57Cabinet Positions Held by Konoe Fumimaro

First Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Konoe Fumimaro

Prime Minister

Jun 4, 1937

Jan 5, 1939

Arima Yoriyasu

Agriculture & Forestry

Jun 4, 1937

Jan 5, 1939

Kazami Akira

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Jun 4, 1937

Jan 5, 1939

Funada Naka

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Oct 25, 1937

Jan 5, 1939

Taki Masao

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Jun 4, 1937

Oct 25, 1937

Ugaki Kazushige

Colonization

Jun 25, 1938

Sep 30, 1938

Konoe Fumimaro

Colonization

Sep 30, 1938

Oct 29, 1938

Hatta Yoshiaki

Colonization

Oct 29, 1938

Jan 5, 1939

Ikeda Shigeaki

Commerce & Industry

May 26, 1938

Jan 5, 1939

Yoshino Shinji

Commerce & Industry

Jun 4, 1937

May 26, 1938

Nagai Ryūtarō

Communications

Jun 4, 1937

Jan 5, 1939

Yasui Eiji

Education

Jun 4, 1937

Oct 22, 1937

Kido Kōichi

Education

Oct 22, 1937

May 26, 1938

Araki Sadao

Education

May 26, 1938

Jan 5, 1939

Ikeda Shigeaki

Finance

May 26, 1938

Jan 5, 1939

Kaya Okinori

Finance

Jun 4, 1937

May 26, 1938

Ugaki Kazushige

Foreign Affairs

May 26, 1938

Sep 30, 1938

Konoe Fumimaro

Foreign Affairs

Sep 30, 1938

Oct 29, 1938

Arita Hachirō

Foreign Affairs

Oct 29, 1938

Jan 5, 1939

Hirota Kōki

Foreign Affairs

Jun 4, 1937

May 26, 1938

Baba Eiichi

Home Affairs

Jun 4, 1937

Dec 14, 1937

Suetsugu Nobumasa

Home Affairs

Dec 14, 1937

Jan 5, 1939

Kido Kōichi

Welfare

Jan 11, 1938

Jan 5, 1939

Nakajima Chikuhei

Railways

Jun 4, 1937

Jan 5, 1939

Ōtani Sonyū

Colonization

Jun 4, 1937

Jun 25, 1938

Shiono Suehiko

Justice

Jun 4, 1937

Jan 5, 1939

Yonai Mitsumasa

Navy

Jun 4, 1937

Jan 5, 1939

Sugiyama Gen

War

Jun 4, 1937

Jun 3, 1938

Itagaki Seishirō

War

Jun 3, 1938

Jan 5, 1939

Table 58Konoe Fumimaro's First Cabinet

Second Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Konoe Fumimaro

Prime Minister

Jul 22, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Ino Tetsuya

Agriculture & Forestry

Jun 11, 1941

Jul 18, 1941

Ishiguro Tadaatsu

Agriculture & Forestry

Jul 24, 1940

Jun 11, 1941

Konoe Fumimaro

Agriculture & Forestry

Jul 22, 1940

Jul 24, 1940

Tomita Kenji

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Jul 22, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Murase Naokai

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Jul 22, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Akita Kiyoshi

Colonization

Sep 28, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Matsuoka Yōsuke

Colonization

Jul 22, 1940

Sep 28, 1940

Kobayashi Ichizō

Commerce AND Industry

Jul 22, 1940

Apr 4, 1941

Toyoda Teijirō

Commerce & Industry

Apr 4, 1941

Jul 18, 1941

Murata Shōzō

Communications

Jul 22, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Hashida Kunihiko

Education

Jul 22, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Kawada Isao

Finance

Jul 22, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Matsuoka Yōsuke

Foreign Affairs

Jul 22, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Hoshino Naoki

Hanretsu

Jul 22, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Hiranuma Kiichirō

Home Affairs

Dec 21, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Yasui Eiji

Home Affairs

Jul 22, 1940

Dec 21, 1940

Kazami Akira

Justice

Jul 22, 1940

Dec 21, 1940

Yanagawa Heisuke

Justice

Dec 21, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Hiranuma Kiichirō

Minister of State

Dec 6, 1940

Dec 21, 1940

Hoshino Naoki

Minister of State

Dec 6, 1940

Apr 4, 1941

Ogura Masatsune

Minister of State

Apr 2, 1941

Jul 18, 1941

Suzuki Teiichi

Minister of State

Apr 4, 1941

Jul 18, 1941

Oikawa Koshirō

Navy

Sep 5, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Yoshida Zengo

Navy

Jul 22, 1940

Sep 5, 1940

Murata Shōzō

Railways

Jul 22, 1940

Sep 28, 1940

Ogawa Gōtarō

Railways

Sep 28, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Tōjō Hideki

War

Jul 22, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Yasui Eiji

Welfare

Jul 22, 1940

Sep 28, 1940

Kanemitsu Tsuneo

Welfare

Sep 28, 1940

Jul 18, 1941

Table 59Konoe Fumimaro's Second Cabinet

Third Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Konoe Fumimaro

Prime Minister

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Ino Tetsuya

Agriculture & Forestry

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Tomita Kenji

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Murase Naokai

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Toyoda Teijirō

Colonization

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Sakonji Masazō

Commerce & Industry

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Murata Shōzō

Communications

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Hashida Kunihiko

Education

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Ogura Masatsune

Finance

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Toyoda Teijirō

Foreign Affairs

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Tanabe Harumichi

Home Affairs

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Iwamura Michiyo

Justice

Jul 25, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Konoe Fumimaro

Justice

Jul 18, 1941

Jul 25, 1941

Hiranuma Kiichirō

Minister of State

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Suzuki Teiichi

Minister of State

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Yanagawa Heisuke

Minister of State

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Oikawa Koshirō

Navy

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Murata Shōzō

Railways

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Tōjō Hideki

War

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Koizumi Chikahiko

Welfare

Jul 18, 1941

Oct 18, 1941

Table 60Konoe Fumimaro's Third Cabinet

Konoe-tennō

The 76th emperor of Japan.

Lived 18 May 1139 to 23 July 1155

Reigned 7 Dec 1141 to 23 July 1155.

Kono Hironaka

Lived 1849 to 1923.

Kono Togama

aka Kono Binken.

Lived 1844 to 1895.

Kōō

Nengō of the Northern Dynasty: 1389--1389.

Korea, Invasion of

which one?

Korea, Protectorate of

Kōrei-tennō

The 7th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 290 to 215 B.C.

Koreyasu

Koriyama, Seige of

Took place in 1540--1541.

Amako Haruhisa, with 3,000 men, attacked Koriyama Castle, which belonged to Mōri Motonari and was defended by 8,000 men. When Mōri sent an army to relieve the seige, Amako was forced to leave.

See Also

Amako Haruhisa (pg. X), Mōri Motonari (pg. X)

Kōryaku

Nengō of the Northern Dynasty: 1379--1380.

Kōshō

Nengō: 1455--1456.

Kōshō-tennō

The 5th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 475 to 393 B.C.

Kotoamatsukami

In Japanese Shintoism, Kotoamatsukami is the collective name for the first powers which came into existence at the time of the creation of the universe. They were born in Takamagahara, the world of Heaven at the time of the creation, as Amenominakanushi (Sky), Takamimusubi (High Producer), Kamimusubi (Divine Producer), and a bit later Umashiashikabihikoji (Reed) and Amenotokotachi (Heaven).

These forces then became gods and goddesses, the tenzai shoshin (heavenly kami):

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://www.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Kotoamatsukami

Kōtoku-tennō

The 36th emperor of Japan.

Lived 596(?) to 10 Oct 654.

Reigned 14 June 645 to 10 Oct 654.

Kōtoku

Nengō: 1452--1454.

Also Kyōtoku. See that entry on page XX for more information.

Kōtoku Shūsui

Socialist and Anarchist.

Born in Kōchi Prefecture.

Lived 1871 to 1911.

See Also

Anarchism (pg 24), Red Flag Incident (pg 291),

Kōwa (1099)

Nengō: 1099--1103.

Kōwa (1381)

Nengō: 1381—1383.

Kowalewski, Jan

Lived ??

Sometimes “Kowalefsky, Jan”

Polish cryptological expert who came to Japan in September of 1924 (January 1923 according to [kahn_2004]) to help the Japanese army improve its codes and codebreaking skills. David Kahn describes Kowalewski as “a tallish, broad, handsome man, with a wonderful sense of humor and great intellectual intuition” ([kahn_2004], pg 86).

After teaching a three month seminar for selected officers, Kowalewski returned to Poland. Four of his Japanese students went with him to gain practical experience with the Polish military crytanalysts in Warsaw. These students returned to Japan a year later and others were sent to Warsaw to replace them. This exchange program of sorts supposedly lasted until 1938.

Unfortunately, there does not seem to be anything available in English to confirm the above. Most of the information is from [hiyama_1994], in which Hiyama Yoshiaki discusses Kowalewski's role in Japanese cryptological history. Hiyama provides no sources for his information. Other recent Japanese books on cryptology, such as [takagawa_2003], present almost no significant new information. Kahn does not mention Kowalewski's students visiting Poland at all and [kahn_2004] (pg 87) says that Kowalewski only taught four Japanese students.

Sources and Suggested Reading

[kahn_2004] pages 86-87, although some of the data does not match that in Japanese language sources like

See Also

Kōyō Gunkan

Kōzuke Province

A province in the area that is today Gunma Prefecture. Kōzuke bordered on Echigo, Iwashiro, Musashi, Shimotsuke, and Shinano Provinces.

See Also

Echigo Province (pg. X), Gumma Prefecture (pg. X), Iwashiro Province (pg. X), Musashi Province (pg. X), Shimotsuke Province (pg. X), Shinano Province (pg. X)

Kōzuki, Seige of

Kōzuki Castle sits at an elevation of 193 meters above sea level atop Mt. Kojin in the town of Kōzuki, in western Hyōgo Prefecture. During the Warring States Period, the castle sat at the intersection of three domains: Bizen, Harima and Mimasaka. It also stood watch over the only major trade route connecting lands to the west with those to the east. These two factors made Kōzuki Castle a very valuable piece of property for any who wished to gain dominance in the region. For the armies of Oda Nobunaga to push west to Hiroshima, Kōzuki Castle had to be captured. For Mori to push east into Oda's domain, he had to keep control of Kōzuki Castle. It was these two great powers of the day, Oda and Mori, which sent tens of thousands to fight and die for control of Kōzuki Castle.

The “Siege” of Kōzuki Castle is a misnomer, as the castle was the site of successive sieges and attacks over a two-year period – 1577 to 1578.

In the year 1577, the lord who controlled Kōzuki Castle for the Mori was named Akamatsu Masanori. That year saw the first massive invasion of Oda's armies into the region, under the leadership of Hideyoshi Hashiba (who would later take the name by which he is well known today – Hideyoshi Toyotomi).

Hideyoshi led an army numbering from thirty to forty thousand soldiers in an assault on the region. The vast majority of local lords, facing insurmountable odds, quickly swore allegiance to Oda and so major battles in the region were somewhat rare. Then Hideyoshi brought the armies of Oda to Kōzuki, where Akamatsu Masanori faced the challenge of Hideyoshi with a refusal to deny Mori as his master. And so the battle was joined.

After the death of thousands of his own, Akamatsu must have realized that defeat was imminent. In December of 1577, Akamatsu Masanori and his lieutenants committed ritual suicide within the walls of the castle, and Hideyoshi claimed victory in the name of Oda Nobunaga.22

After Hideyoshi's victory, the general placed the lord, Amago Katsuhisa, in the castle. It was not Amago, but Amago's top retainer, Yamanaka Shikanosuke, who gained fame in the siege of 1578. In that year, Mori sent an army of approximately thirty thousand into the region, to take back control of Kōzuki Castle, through which he would regain control of the region.

In October of that year, the Mori army surrounded Kōzuki Castle and began the attack. Amago Katsuhisa had, at most, one thousand men in his army to defend the castle.23

While Kōzuki Castle was under siege by the army of Mori, Hideyoshi himself returned with ten thousand soldiers to aid Amago in his defense of the castle. Hideyoshi sent a request to Oda Nobunaga for more soldiers to aid in the defense. Oda's reply condemned the defenders of the castle to their deaths.

At that time, Oda Nobunaga had problems further east – at Miki Castle (located in present day eastern Hyogo Prefecture). Hideyoshi was sent no troops. Rather, Hideyoshi and his army of ten thousand were recalled to aid in Oda's assault on Miki Castle. Hideyoshi and his men were literally within three miles of Kōzuki Castle when they were recalled.

The Amago forces repelled attack after attack, but their numbers were being reduced steadily with each assault and a Mori victory was just a matter of time.

Without his lord's permission, Yamanaka Shikanosuke met in secret with the leaders of the attacking Mori army and made them an offer. In exchange for the safety of Amago's retainers, Yamanaka and the defenders of Kōzuki Castle would surrender. His offer was accepted. Yamanaka Shikanosuke surrendered with what was left of Amago Katsuhisa's army. As promised, those who surrendered were kept alive and changed their allegiance to side with Mori.

Amago Katsuhisa committed ritual suicide within the castle walls. The bargain Yamanaka Shikanosuke had made with the Mori did not apply to himself.

Yamanaka Shikanosuke was taken prisoner and taken into the west. There he was executed in a dishonorable fashion – being cut down from behind. One theory suggests that Yamanaka struck a bargain with the Mori in an attempt to save his own life. Another suggests that he sacrificed himself for the sake of his men. The finer details of the secret meeting were never recorded and it is impossible to know Yamanaka's true motives.

by Carl F. Kelley

Contributed December 2002

See Also

Amago (Amako) Katsuhisa (pg. X), Toyotomi (Hashiba) Hideyoshi (pg. X), Kobayakawa Takakage (pg. X), Kikkawa Motoharu (pg. X)

(todo: index this entry)

Kukai

Lived 774 to 835.

Kuki Yoshitaka

Kumamoto National Party

Kumamoto City

The capital of Kumamoto Prefecture.

Kumamoto Prefecture

Area: 7,403 km2 (1995)

Capital: Kumamoto

Population: 1,870,000 (1996)

Kunohe Masazane

Lived

Kuroda Kiyotaka

Lived 16 Oct. 1840 to 23 Aug. 1900.

Prime Minister from 30 April 1888 to 24 December 1889.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Itō

Agriculture & Commerce

Sep 16, 1887

Apr 30, 1888

Kuroda

Prime Minister

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 24, 1889

2nd Itō

Hanretsu

Mar 17, 1895

Sep 18, 1896

Table 61Cabinet Positions Held by Kuroda Kiyotaka

Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Kuroda Kiyotaka

Prime Minister

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 24, 1889

Enomoto Takeaki

Agriculture & Commerce

Apr 30, 1888

Jul 25, 1889

Komaki Banchō

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 24, 1889

Inoue Kowashi

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 24, 1889

Enomoto Takeaki

Communications

Apr 30, 1888

Mar 22, 1889

Gotō Shōjirō

Communications

Mar 22, 1889

Dec 24, 1889

Mori Arinori

Education

Apr 30, 1888

Feb 12, 1889

Ōyama Iwao

Education

Feb 16, 1889

Mar 22, 1889

Enomoto Takeaki

Education

Mar 22, 1889

Dec 24, 1889

Matsukata Masayoshi

Finance

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 24, 1889

Ōkuma Shigenobu

Foreign Affairs

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 24, 1889

Itō Hirobumi

Hanretsu

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 24, 1889

Yamagata Aritomo

Home Affairs

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 3, 1888

Matsukata Masayoshi

Home Affairs

Dec 3, 1888

Oct 3, 1889

Yamagata Aritomo

Home Affairs

Oct 3, 1889

Dec 24, 1889

Yamada Akiyoshi

Justice

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 24, 1889

Saigō Tsugumichi

Navy

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 24, 1889

Ōyama Iwao

War

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 24, 1889

Table 62Kuroda Kiyotaka's Cabinet

Kuroda Nagamasa

Lived 3 Dec. 1568 to 4 Aug. 1623.

Son of Kuroda Yoshitaka. Fought for Toyotomi Hideyoshi in Kyūshū and Korea. Sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu at the Battle of Sekigahara and again at the Seige of Ōsaka.

Was given Najima (520,000 koku) in Chikuzen after Sekigahara. Previously he had held Nakatsu (120,000 koku) in Buzen.

See Also

Buzen Province (pg. X), Chikuzen Province (pg. X), Korea, Invasion of (pg. X), Kyūshū (pg. X), Ōsaka, Seige of (pg. X), Sekigahara, Battle of (pg. X), Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg. X), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (pg. X),

Kuroiwa Ruiko

Lived 1862 to 1920.

Kurosawa Akira

Japanese: 黒澤 明 also 黒沢 明

Lived 23 March 1910 to 6 Sept. 1998

A prominent Japanese director, producer, and screenplay writer.

Kurosawa is perhaps Japan's best-known filmmaker. He greatly influenced a whole generation of filmmakers worldwide. His first film (Sanshiro Sugata) was released in 1943; his last in 1999 (posthumously). Few filmmakers have had a career so long or so acclaimed.

Kurosawa was born March 23, 1910, in Omori, Tokyo. During his lifetime he saw Japan change from an undeveloped country with military ambitions to a peaceful economic power. Although he is most remembered for his films of the 1950s and 1960s, he continued to direct and write films until his death. He died September 6, 1998, in Setagaya, Tokyo.

Kurosawa's best-known films are set in Japan's feudal period (c. 13th century-17th century). Some of his plots are adaptations of William Shakespeare's works: Ran is based on King Lear and Throne of Blood is based on Macbeth.

George Lucas credits The Hidden Fortress (Japanese name Kakushi toride no san akunin), the tale of a princess, her general, and two buffoonish farmers, as an influence on his Star Wars films. Other films include Rashomon, The Seven Samurai (later remade as the western The Magnificent Seven), and Yōjimbō – the basis for the Clint Eastwood western A Fistful of Dollars. Yōjimbō was followed by a sequel, Sanjuro.

Kurosawa also directed film adaptations of Russian novels, including The Idiot by Dostoevsky and The Lower Depths. High and Low was based on a novel by American crime writer Ed McBain. Sixteen of his films, made between 1948 and 1964, feature many recurring actors - most notably Toshiro Mifune, whose relationship with Kurosawa began with 1948's Drunken Angel and ended with 1964's Red Beard.

After that film Kurosawa began working in colour and changed the style and scope of his films, which had formerly tended toward the epic. His subsequent film Dodesukaden, about a group of poor people living around a rubbish dump, was not a success. Kurosawa then began work on a Hollywood project, Tora! Tora! Tora!; but 20th Century Fox replaced him with Kinji Fukasaku before it was completed.

After this Kurosawa attempted suicide, but survived. He went on to make several more films: Dersu Uzala, made in the USSR and set in Siberia in the early 20th century, won an Oscar; Kagemusha, the story of a man who is the double of a medieval Japanese lord and takes over his identity; and the aforementioned Ran, which was a phenomenal international success and is considered to be the crowning artistic achievement of Kurosawa's career. Kurosawa's final films included Akira Kurosawa's Dreams, Rhapsody in August and Madadayo.

Filmography

Title (En)

Title (Jp)

Year

Sanshiro Sugata


1943

One Most Beautiful, The


1944

Sanshiro Sugata Part II


1945

They Who Step on the Tiger's Tail


1945

No Regrets for Our Youth


1946

One Wonderful Sunday


1946

Drunken Angel


1948

Quiet Duel, The


1949

Stray Dog


1949

Rashomon


1950

Scandal


1950

Idiot, The


1951

Ikiru aka To Live


1952

Seven Samurai, The


1954

Record of a Living Being


1955

Lower Depths, The


1957

Throne of Blood, The


1957

Hidden Fortress, The


1958

Bad Sleep Well, The


1960

Yojimbo aka The Bodyguard

用心棒

1961

Sanjuro


1962

High and Low aka Heaven and Hell


1963

Red Beard

赤ひげ

1965

Dodesukaden


1970

Dersu Uzala


1975

Kagemusha


1980

Ran

1985

Dreams aka Akira Kurosawa's Dreams


1990

Rhapsody in August


1991

Madadayo aka Not Yet


1993

Table 63Filmography of Kurosawa Akira

See Also

Mifune Toshirō (pg 214)

Suggested Reading

Akira Kurosawa. Something Like An Autobiography. [kurosawa_1983]

Donald Richie and Joan Mellen. The Films of Akira Kurosawa, 1999

Modified from the Wikipedia Article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akira_Kurosawa

Kurusu Takeo

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Katayama

Finance

Jun 25, 1947

Mar 10, 1948

Ashida

State: Director of Economic Stabilization Board & Director of Price Board

Mar 10, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Ashida

State: Director of Central Economic Investigation Agency

Aug 1, 1948

Oct 15, 1948

Table 64Cabinet Positions Held by Kurusu Takeo

Kuruzuryugawa, Battle of

Kusunoki Masashige

Lived 1294 to 1336.

Kyōgoku Takatsugu

Lived 1560 to 1609.

Samurai. Christian.

Fought for Oda Nobunaga.

Received Ōtsu (60,000 koku) in Ōmi from Hideyoshi (what year?).

Side with the Tokugawa (when?) and was attacked at his castle by Tachibana Muneshige and Tsukushi Hirokado. (Details?)

Was given Obama (92,000 koku) in Wakasa in 1600.

Baptised in 1602.

See Also

Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Ōmi Province (pg. X), Tachibana Muneshige (pg. X), Tokugawa Family (pg. X), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (pg. X), Tsukushi Hirokado (pg. X), Wakasa Province (pg. X),

Kyōhō

Nengō: 1716--1735.

Kyokutei Bakin

See Bakin on page XX.

Kyōroku

Nengō: 1528--1531.

Kyōto City

The capital of Kyōto Prefecture.

Kyōtoku

Nengō: 1452--1454.

aka Kōtoku.

Kyōto Prefecture

Not technically a ken but rather a fu.

Area: 4,612 km2 (1995)

Capital: Kyōto

Population: 2,550,000 (1996)

Kyōwa

Nengō: 1801--1803.

Kyūan

Nengō: 1145--1150.

Kyūju

Nengō: 1154--1155.

Kyūshū

One of the four main islands of Japan. Of the four, Kyūūshū is the farthest South and West. It is thus relatively close to both China and Korea. Historically, Kyūshū has had more freedom from the central government than other areas of the main islands have had (with the notable exception of Hokkaidō).

See Also

Hokkaidō, Honshū, Shikoku

Kyūshū Campaign



Lansing, Robert – Lytton

Lansing, Robert

Li Hung-chang

Lobanov

Lytton

MacArthur, Douglas – Mutsu Province

MacArthur, Douglas

Lived 1880 to 1964.

Machida Chūji

Lived 1863 to 1946.

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Wakatsuki

Agriculture & Forestry

Jun 3, 1926

Apr 20, 1927

Hamaguchi

Agriculture & Forestry

Jul 2, 1929

Apr 14, 1931

2nd Wakatsuki

Agriculture & Forestry

Apr 14, 1931

Dec 13, 1931

Okada

Commerce & Industry

Jul 8, 1934

Mar 9, 1936

Okada

Finance

Feb 27, 1936

Mar 9, 1936

Koiso

State

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Table 65Cabinet Positions Held by Machida Chūji

Maebara Issei

Lived 1834 to 1876.

Maebashi City

Capital of Gunma Prefecture (pg. X)

Maeda Family

A daimyō family from Owari who were descended from Sugawara no Michizane (pg. X).

Maeda Mitsumasa

Lived 1613 to 1645.

Son of Maeda Toshitsune (pg. X).

Maeda Toshiharu

Lived 1618 to 1660.

Son of Maeda Toshitsune (pg. X).

Maeda Toshiie

Lived 1539 (1538?) to 1599.

Fought for Oda Nobunaga (pg XXX).

Assisted Hideyoshi with the invasion of Korea, from Japan.

Was one of the five daimyō Hideyoshi appointed to rule while his son was a minor. Toshiie tried to curb the power of the Tokugawa, but died before Sekigahara.

Maeda Toshimasa

aka Maeda Takamasa

Son of Toshiie.

Was the daimyō of Noto (215,000 koku) but supported Hideyori at Sekigahara. For this he was forced to retire and his lands went to his brother Maeda Toshinaga.

Maeda Toshinaga

Lived 1562 to 1614.

Eldest son of Maeda Toshiie. Married one of Tokugawa Ieyasu's daughters.

Supported Ieyasu and after receiving his brother Toshimasa's lands (Noto, 215,000 koku) controlled a total of 1,250,000 koku, an amount exceeded only by the shōgunate. Toshinaga built and resided in Kanazawa Castle.

Had no children and adopted his brother Toshitsune as his heir.

Maeda Toshitsugi

Maeda Toshitsune

Lived 1593 to 1658.

Brother to Maeda Toshinaga. Adopted as his heir, becoming the wealthest daimyō outside of the Tokugawa. He controlled Etchu, Kaga, and Noto.

Maeda Yonezō

Lived

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Tanaka G.

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Apr 20, 1927

Jul 2, 1929

Inukai (dates?)

Commerce & Industry

Dec 13, 1931

May 26, 1932

Hirota

Railways

Mar 9, 1936

Feb 2, 1937

Hiranuma

Railways

Jan 5, 1939

Aug 30, 1939

Koiso

Transport & Communications

Jul 22, 1944

Apr 7, 1945

Table 66Cabinet Positions Held by Maeda Yonezō

Maejima Hisoka

Lived 1835 to 1919.

Maibara City

Makino Nobuaki

Lived 1861 to 1949.

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Saionji

Education

Mar 27, 1906

Jul 14, 1908

2nd Saionji

Agriculture & Commerce

Aug 30, 1911

Dec 21, 1912

1st Yamamoto

Foreign Affairs

Feb 20, 1913

Apr 16, 1914

Table 67Cabinet Positions Held by Makino Nobuaki

Manchurian Incident

Manchurian Railway Company

Man'en

Nengō: 1860--1860.

Manji

Nengō: 1658--1660.

Manju

Nengō: 1024--1027.

Marco Polo Bridge Incident

Marune, Seige of

Took place in 1560.

(Tokugawa? Matsudaira Motoyasu?) took the castle from Sakuma Morishige, a vassal of Oda Nobunaga.

See Also

Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg. X), Oda Nobunaga (pg. X),

Masuda Takashi

Lived 1848 to 1938.

Matsudaira Kagetada

Matsudaira Koremasu

Matsudaira Motoyasu

Matsudaira Sadanobu

Lived 27 Dec. 1758 (1759?) to 13 May 1829.

Matsuda Masahisa

Lived 1845 to 1914.

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Ōkuma

Finance

Jun 30, 1898

Nov 8, 1898

4th Itō

Education

Oct 19, 1900

Jun 2, 1901

1st Saionji

Justice

Jan 7, 1906

Mar 25, 1908

1st Saionji

Finance

Jan 14, 1908

Jul 14, 1908

2nd Saionji

Justice

Aug 30, 1911

Dec 21, 1912

1st Yamamoto

Justice

Feb 20, 1913

Nov 11, 1913

Table 68Cabinet Positions Held by Matsuda Masahisa

Matsue City

Capital of Shimane Prefecture (pg. X).

Matsukata Masayoshi

Lived 1835 to 1929.

Prime Minister from 6 May 1891 to 8 August 1892 and 18 September 1896 to 12 January 1898.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Itō

Finance

Dec 22, 1885

Apr 30, 1888

Kurota

Finance

Apr 30, 1888

Dec 24, 1889

Kurota

Home Affairs

Dec 3, 1888

Oct 3, 1889

1st Yamagata

Finance

Dec 24, 1889

May 6, 1891

1st Matsukata

Finance

May 6, 1891

Aug 8, 1892

1st Matsukata

Prime Minister

May 6, 1891

Aug 8, 1892

1st Matsukata

Home Affairs

Jun 8, 1892

Jul 14, 1892

2nd Itō

Finance

Mar 17, 1895

Aug 27, 1895

2nd Matsukata

Finance

Sep 18, 1896

Jan 12, 1898

2nd Matsukata

Prime Minister

Sep 18, 1896

Jan 12, 1898

2nd Yamagata

Finance

Nov 8, 1898

Oct 19, 1900

Table 69Cabinet Positions Held by Matsukata Masayoshi

Matsukata Masayoshi's First Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Matsukata Masayoshi

Prime Minister

May 6, 1891

Aug 8, 1892

Kōno Togama

Agriculture & Commerce

Mar 14, 1892

Jul 14, 1892

Mutsu Munemitsu

Agriculture & Commerce

May 6, 1891

Mar 14, 1892

Sano Tsunetami

Agriculture & Commerce

Jul 14, 1892

Aug 8, 1892

Hiranuma Narinobu

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

May 6, 1891

Aug 8, 1892

Ozaki Saburō

Chief of Legislative Bureau

May 6, 1891

Aug 8, 1892

Gotō Shōjirō

Communications

May 6, 1891

Aug 8, 1892

Ōki Takatō

Education

Jun 1, 1891

Aug 8, 1892

Ōki Takatō

Education

Jun 1, 1891

Aug 8, 1892

Yoshikawa Akimasa

Education

May 6, 1891

Jun 1, 1891

Matsukata Masayoshi

Finance

May 6, 1891

Aug 8, 1892

Matsukata Masayoshi

Finance

May 6, 1891

Aug 8, 1892

Aoki Shūzō

Foreign Affairs

May 6, 1891

May 29, 1891

Enomoto Takeaki

Foreign Affairs

May 29, 1891

Aug 8, 1892

Kōno Togama

Home Affairs

Jul 14, 1892

Aug 8, 1892

Matsukata Masayoshi

Home Affairs

Jun 8, 1892

Jul 14, 1892

Saigō Tsugumichi

Home Affairs

May 6, 1891

Jun 1, 1891

Shinagawa Yajirō

Home Affairs

Jun 1, 1891

Mar 11, 1892

Soejima Taneomi

Home Affairs

Mar 11, 1892

Jun 8, 1892

Kōno Togama

Justice

Jun 23, 1892

Aug 8, 1892

Tanaka Fujimaro

Justice

Jun 1, 1891

Jun 23, 1892

Yamada Akiyoshi

Justice

May 6, 1891

Jun 1, 1891

Kabayama Sukenori

Navy

May 6, 1891

Aug 8, 1892

Ōyama Iwao

War

May 6, 1891

May 17, 1891

Takashima Tomonosuke

War

May 17, 1891

Aug 8, 1892

Table 70Matsukata Masayoshi's First Cabinet

Matsukata Masayoshi's Second Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Matsukata Masayoshi

Prime Minister

Sep 18, 1896

Jan 12, 1898

Enomoto Takeaki

Agriculture & Commerce

Sep 18, 1896

Mar 29, 1897

Ōkuma Shigenobu

Agriculture & Commerce

Mar 29, 1897

Nov 6, 1897

Yamada Nobumichi

Agriculture & Commerce

Nov 8, 1897

Jan 12, 1898

Hiranuma Narinobu

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Oct 8, 1897

Jan 12, 1898

Takahashi Kenzō

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Sep 18, 1896

Oct 8, 1897

Kōmuchi Tomotsune

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Sep 18, 1896

Oct 28, 1897

Ume Kenjirō

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Oct 28, 1897

Jan 12, 1898

Takashima Tomonosuke

Colonization

Sep 18, 1896

Sep 2, 1897

Nomura Yasushi

Communications

Sep 26, 1896

Jan 12, 1898

Shirane Sen'ichi

Communications

Sep 18, 1896

Sep 26, 1896

Hachisuka Mochiaki

Education

Sep 28, 1896

Nov 6, 1897

Hamao Arata

Education

Nov 6, 1897

Jan 12, 1898

Saionji Kinmochi

Education

Sep 18, 1896

Sep 28, 1896

Matsukata Masayoshi

Finance

Sep 18, 1896

Jan 12, 1898

Nishi Tokujirō

Foreign Affairs

Nov 6, 1897

Jan 12, 1898

Ōkuma Shigenobu

Foreign Affairs

Sep 22, 1896

Nov 6, 1897

Saionji Kinmochi

Foreign Affairs

Sep 18, 1896

Sep 22, 1896

Itagaki Taisuke

Home Affairs

Sep 18, 1896

Sep 20, 1896

Kabayama Sukenori

Home Affairs

Sep 20, 1896

Jan 12, 1898

Kiyoura Keigo

Justice

Sep 26, 1896

Jan 12, 1898

Yoshikawa Akimasa

Justice

Sep 18, 1896

Sep 26, 1896

Saigō Tsugumichi

Navy

Sep 18, 1896

Jan 12, 1898

Ōyama Iwao

War

Sep 18, 1896

Sep 20, 1895

Takashima Tomonosuke

War

Sep 20, 1896

Jan 12, 1898

Table 71Matsukata Masayoshi's Second Cabinet

Matsukura Castle

Castle in Etchū, built by Fumon Toshikiyo.

Matsumoto Jōji

Lived

Cabinet Positions Held by Matsumoto Jōji

Cabinet

Position

From

To

2nd Yamamoto

Chief of Legislative Bureau

Sep 2, 1923

Jan 7, 1924

Saitō

Commerce & Industry

Feb 9, 1934

Jul 8, 1934

Shidehara

State

Oct 9, 1945

May 22, 1946

Table 72Cabinet Positions Held by Matsumoto Jōji

Matsumura Kenzō

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Higashikuni

Education

Aug 17, 1945

Aug 18, 1945

Higashikuni

Welfare

Aug 17, 1945

Oct 9, 1945

Shidehara

Agriculture & Forestry

Oct 9, 1945

Jan 13, 1946

Table 73Cabinet Positions Held by Matsumura Kenzō

Matsunaga Hisahide

Lived 1510 to 1577

Samurai.

Spent much time fighting in shōgunal succession disputes. Briefly controlled a baby shōgun.

Became a vassal of Oda Nobunaga in 1568. Revolted in 1572 but soon turned on his co-traitors. Tried to revolt again in 1577 but Oda forces destroyed his castle (which was where?) and Hisahide committed suicide.

(This reminds me --- need to add an entry on gekokujō.)

See Also

gekokujō (pg. X), Oda Nobunaga (pg. X),

Matsuo Bashō

Lived 1844 to 1694.

Matsuoka Komakichi

Lived 1888 to 1958.

Matsuoka Yosuke

Lived 1880 to 1946.

Matsusaka-han

Matsushita Konosuke

Lived 1894 to 1989.

Matsuyama City

Capital of Ehime Prefecture (pg. XX).

Matsuyama-han

Matsuzaka-han

May Fifteen Incident

May Fourth Movement

Meiji Constitution

See Constitution of 1889, on page 60.

Meiji

Nengō: 1868-1912.

The Meiji Era (1868--1912) marks the reign of the Emperor Meiji. During this time, Japan was modernized and rose to world power status.

The Meiji Restoration (1867--1868) ended the over 250 years of rule by the Tokugawa shōguns. It also is a convenient break between old feudal-like and “modern” Japan. In 1868, 14-year-old Mutsuhito succeded his father, the Emperor Komei, taking the title Meiji, meaning “enlightened rule.”

Considering that the economic structure and production of the country was roughly equivalent to Elizabethan era England, to become a world power in such a short amount of time is widely regarded as remarkable progress. This process was closely monitored and heavily subsidized by the Meiji government, creating companies whose power and influence would grow such that would later be known as “zaibatsu.”

Following her defeat of China in Korea in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), Japan's breakthrough as an international power came with her victory against Russia in Korea and Manchuria (north-eastern China) in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904--1905. Allied with Britain since 1902, Japan joined the Allies in World War I, seizing German-held territory in China and the Pacific in the process, but otherwise remained largely out of the conflict. After the war, a weakened Europe left a greater share in international markets to the U.S. and Japan, which emerged greatly strengthened. Japanese competition made great inroads into hitherto European-dominated markets in Asia, not only in China, but even in European colonies like India and Indonesia.

The Emperor Meiji died in 1912 and the Taisho emperor took the throne and thus began the Taisho Era.

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://www.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Meiji_Era

Meiji Restoration

Japanese: 明治維新

The Meiji Restoration, also known as the Meiji Ishin or Renewal, describes a chain of events that led to a change in Japan's political and social structure; it occurred from 1866 to 1869, a period of 4 years that falls in both the late Edo (often called Late Tokugawa shōgunate) and the beginning of the Meiji Era.

The formation in 1866 of the Satcho Alliance between Saigo Takamori, of Satsuma, and Kido Takayoshi, of Choshu, marks the beginning of the Meiji restoration. These two leaders supported the emperor and were brought together by Ryoma Sakamoto for the purpose of challenging the ruling Tokugawa shōgunate (bakufu) and restoring the emperor to power.

The Tokugawa bakufu came to an official end on November 9, 1867, when the 15th Tokugawa shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu "put his prerogotives at the emperor's disposal" (Beasley, 52) and then resigned his position 10 days later. This was effectively the "restoration" (Taisei Houkan) of imperial rule, although Yoshinobu retained considerable power.

Shortly thereafter in January 1868, the Boshin War (War of the Year of the Dragon) started with the Battle of Toba Fushimi in which an army led by forces from Choshu and Satsuma defeated the ex-shōgun's army and forced the Emperor to strip Yoshinobu of all power. The war ended in early 1869 with the siege of Hakodate, Hokkaido. The defeat of the armies of the former shōgun (led by Hijikata Toshizo) marked the end of the Meiji Restoration; all defiance to the emperor and his rule ended.

The leaders of the Meiji Restoration, as this revolution came to be known, claimed that their actions restored the emperor's powers. This is not in fact true. Power simply moved from the Tokugawa shōgun to a new oligarchy. These oligarchs were mostly from the Satsuma province (Okubo Toshimichi and Saigo Takamori), and the Choshu province (Ito Hirobumi, Yamagata Aritomo, and Kido Koin.)

Leaders

These were leading figures in the Meiji Restoration when the Japanese emperors retook power from the Tokugawa shoguns. Some of them went on to become Prime Ministers of Japan.

Name

Birth

Death

Han (Domain)

Okubo Toshimichi

1830

1878


Kido Takayoshi

1833

1877


Saigo Takamori

1827

1877


Iwakura Tomomi

1825

1883


Ito Hirobumi

1841

1909


Kuroda Kiyotaka

1840

1900


Matsukata Masayoshi

1835

1924


Oyama Iwao

1842

1916


Saigo Tsugumichi

1843

1902


Yamagata Aritomo

1838

1922


Inoue Kaoru

1835

1915


Saionji Kinmochi

1849

1940


Table 74 Leaders of the Meiji Restoration

References and Suggested Reading

Beasley, W. G. The Rise of Modern Japan: Political, Economic and Social Change Since 1850. St. Martin's Press, New York 1995.

Beasley, The Meiji Restoration

The names of the Meiji Oligarchists were taken from: Murphey, Rhoades. East Asia: A New History. Addison Wesley Longman, New York 1997.

Ernest Satow

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meiji_Restoration

Meiji-tennō

The 122nd emperor of Japan.

Lived 22 Sept. 1852 to 29 July 1912.

Reigned 9 Jan. 1867 to 29 (30?) July 1912. His coronation was in 1868.

Meiō

Nengō: 1492--1500.

Meireki

Nengō: 1655--1657.

Meishō-tennō

An empress, not an emperor. The 109th ruler of Japan. The last woman to sit on the throne.

Lived from 19 Nov 1623 to 10 Nov 1696.

Reigned from 8 Nov 1629 (1630?) to 3 Oct 1643.

Second daughter of Gomizunō-tennō.

Meitoku (Northern Dynasty)

Nengō of the Northern Dynasty: 1390-1393.

Meitoku (Southern Dynasty)

Nengō of the Southern Dynasty: 1393-1393.

Meiwa

Nengō: 1764--1771.

Mie Prefecture

Area: 5,774 km2 (1995)

Capital: Tsu

Population: 1,840,000 (1996)

Mifune Toshirō

Japanese: 三船 敏郎

Lived from 1 April 1920 to 24 December 1997

A charismatic actor who appeared in almost 170 films. He was best known for his roles in Kurosawa Akira's masterpieces in the 1950s and 1960s (including The Seven Samurai, Yōjimbō, and Red Beard). He often portrayed a samurai or ronin, sometimes rough and gruff, and usually a reluctant hero. Well known outside of Japan for his role in The Seven Samurai and for his portrayal of Miyamoto Musashi in other films.

Filmography

Title (En)

Title (Jp)

Role

Year

Director

Bad Sleep Well, The



1960

Kurosawa

Drunken Angel



1948

Kurosawa

Grand Prix





Hidden Fortress, The



1958

Kurosawa

High and Low



1963

Kurosawa

Rashomon



1950

Kurosawa

Record of a Living Being (aka I Live in Fear)





Red Beard

赤ひげ


1965

Kurosawa

Samurai I





Samurai II





Samurai III





Sanjuro



1962

Kurosawa

The Seven Samurai



1954

Kurosawa

Shōgun (television)





Stray Dog



1949

Kurosawa

Throne of Blood



1957

Kurosawa

Yōjimbō

用心棒


1961

Kurosawa

1941


submarine commander


Spielberg

Table 75Filmography of Mifune Toshirō

See Also

Kurosawa Akira pg (199), Miyamoto Musashi (pg 225)

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toshiro_Mifune

Miike Coal Mine

Mikagehama, Battle of

1351.

A battle between Ashikaga Takauji and Kō Morona on one side and Ishidō Yorifusa on the other. Ishidō won.

Mikatagahara, Battle of

Fought in 1572.

Takeda Shingen was headed for Ieyasu's castle at Hamamatsu. Among his men were Yamagata Masakage and Baba Nobuharu. Ieyasu took about 11,000 men (3,000 of them Oda Nobunaga's troops) out to meet Shingen in battle. Shingen had as many as 30,000 men.

Shingen defeated Ieyasu but bad weather and Tokugawa cunning prevented him from following up on the victory. The cunning part is this: Ieyasu managed to retreat into his castle, but ordered the gates left open and bonfires lit, to help his scattered troops to find their way back.

Sakai Tadatsugu, in the castle, even went so far as to beat on a drum. In addition to helping morale, these efforts convinced Masakage and Nobuharu --- pursuing the retreating Tokugawa forces --- that there must be some trick. Instead of attacking the wide open castle, they camped outside for the night. The following day, the Takeda army left.

See Also

Takeda Shingen (pg. X), Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg. X), Yamagata Masakage (pg. X), Baba Nobuharu (pg. X), Sakai Tadatsugu (pg. X)

Mikawa Province

A province in the area that is today Aichi Prefecture. Mikawa bordered on Owari, Mino, Shinano, and Tōtōmi Provinces.

See Also

Aichi Prefecture (pg. X), Owari Province (pg. X), Mino Province (pg. X), Shinano Province (pg. X), Tōtōmi Province (pg. X),

Miki Kiyoshi

Lived 1897 to 1945.

Miki, Seige of

Lasted from 1578--1580.

Hideyoshi took Miki Castle from Bessho Nagaharu, a retainer of the Mōri.

See Also

Toyotomi Hideyoshi (pg. X), Mōri Family (pg. X), Bessho Nagaharu (pg. X),

Miki Takeo

Lived 1907 to 1988.

Politician. Elected to the Diet in 1937 and remained there until at least 1984. Was prime minister from 9 December 1974 to 24 December 1976. Miki was popular with the public for his attempts at reform and unpopular with big business and his own party for the same reason. He held many other posts during his career in addition to being prime minister.

Mimasaka Province

A province in the area that is today Okayama Prefecture. Mimasaka bordered on Bitchū, Bizen, Harima, Hōki, and Inaba Provinces. Mimasaka was landlocked.

See Also

Bitchū Province (pg. X), Bizen Province (pg. X), Harima Province (pg. X), Hōki Province (pg. X), Inaba Province (pg. X), Okayama Prefecture (pg. X),

Mimasetoge, Battle of

Took place in 1569.

Hōjō Ujiteru and Hōjō Ujikuni attacked Takeda Shingen. Although outnumbered 2 to 1, Shingen and his army managed to escape.

See Also

Takeda Shingen (pg. X), Hōjō Ujiteru (pg. X), Hōjō Ujikuni (pg. X)

Minami Hiroshi

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Saionji

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Jan 04 1908

14 July 1908

2nd Saionji

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

30 Aug 1911

21 Dec 1912

Saitō

Communications

26 May 1932

08 July 1934

Table 76Cabinet Positions Held by Minami Hiroshi

Minamoto Akira

Lived 814 to 843.

Minamoto Ariko

Lived 1171 to 1257.

Minamoto Chikako

Daughter of Morochika (who?). Wife to Emperors Kameyama and Godaigo.

Minamoto Families

An important job for any hereditary ruler is to provide an heir. In the past it was not uncommon for many children to die before reaching adulthood and thus it was not safe for a monarch to have only a few children. More sons offered a better chance of at least one making it safely to adulthood and eventually to become ruler.

But what to do with all the other royal children who do not die? At best they are a drain on the treasury and at worst (the usual case) they are involved in all sorts of court plots and conspiracies. The Emperor Saga (reigned 809 to 823) started the tradition of giving the name `Minamoto' to the sons and sometimes brothers of emperors and then casting them free, as new families, separate from the imperial court.

As time went on there were so many Minamotos that they started being distinguished by which emperor they were descended from. Thus, the Daigo-Minamoto are descendents of the Emperor Daigo and the Uda-Minamoto are descendents of the Emperor Uda.

Minamoto Family (Daigo Branch)

A branch of the Minamoto family decended from Minamoto Takaaki, a son of Emperor Daigo.

Toshikata, Takakuni, Toshiaki, and Hiromasa are among the members of this line of the Minamoto.

See Also

Daigo-tennō (pg. X), Minamoto Hiromasa (pg. X), Minamoto Takaaki (pg. X), Minamoto Takakuni (pg. X), Minamoto Toshiaki (pg. X), Minamoto Toshikata (pg. X),

Minamoto Family (Murakami Branch)

A branch of the Minamoto family descended from Tamehira and Tomohira, sons of the Emperor Murakami.

Minamoto Family (Saga Branch)

A branch of the Minamoto family decended from Minamoto Makoto, a son of the Emperor Saga.

Tsune, Akira, Sadamu, Tōru, Hikaru, and Shitagau are among the members of this line of the Minamoto.

See Also

Minamoto Akira (pg. X), Minamoto Hikaru (pg. X), Minamoto Makoto (pg. X), Minamoto Sadamu (pg. X), Minamoto Shitagau (pg. X), Minamoto Tōru (pg. X), Minamoto Tsune (pg. X), Saga-tennō (pg. X),

Minamoto Family (Seiwa Branch)

A branch of the Minamoto family descended from Sadatoshi, Sadayasu, and Sadazumi, sons of the Emperor Seiwa.

Minamoto Family (Uda Branch)

A branch of the Minamoto family descended from Tokiyo and Atsuzane, sons of the Emperor Uda.

Minamoto Hideakira

Died 940.

Minamoto Hikaru

Lived 845 to 913.

Minamoto Hiromasa

Lived 918 to 980.

Minamoto Ichiman

Lived 1200 to 1203.

Minamoto Kugyo

Minamoto Makoto

Lived 810 to 869.

Minamoto Masanobu

Lived 920 to 993.

Minamoto Masazane

Lived 1059 to 1127.

Minamoto Michichika

Lived 1149 to 1202.

Minamoto Mitsunaka

Lived 912 to 997.

Minamoto Morofusa

Lived 1003 to 1077.

Minamoto Moroyori

Lived 1070 to 1139.

Minamoto Nakatsuna

Died 1180.

Minamoto Noriyori

Lived 1156 to 1193.

Minamoto Sadamu

Lived 815 to 863.

Minamoto Sanetomo

Lived 1192 to 1219.

The 3rd Kamakura shōgun.

In office: 1203 to 1219.

Minamoto Senju-maru

Lived 1201 to 1214.

Minamoto Shitagau

Lived 911 to 983.

Minamoto Takaaki

Lived 914 to 982.

Minamoto Takakuni

Lived 1004 to 1077.

Minamoto Tametomo

Lived 1139 to 1170.

Minamoto Tameyoshi

Lived 1096 to 1156.

Minamoto Tomonaga

Lived 1144 to 1160.

Minamoto Tōru

Lived 822 to 895.

Minamoto Toshiaki

Lived 1044 to 1114.

Minamoto Toshifusa

Lived 1035 to 1131.

Minamoto Toshikata

Lived 959 to 1027.

Minamoto Tsunemoto

Lived 894 to 961.

Minamoto Tsune

Lived 812 to 854.

Minamoto Yoriie

Lived 1182 to 1204.

The 2nd Kamakura shōgun.

In office: 1202 to 1203.

Minamoto Yoriie was the second shōgun of the Kamakura shōgunate of Japan. Eldest son of the founder of the Kamakura shōgunate Minamoto Yoritomo, his mother was Hōjō Masako.

After his father's death in 1199, Yoriie became head of the Minamoto clan and was appointed Seii Taishogun (shōgun) in 1202. By this time however, real power had already fallen into the hands of his grandfather Hōjō Tokimasa. Yoriie in turn plotted to subjugate the Hōjō clan but failed and was put under house arrest and eventually assassinated in 1204.

Yoriie was succeeded by his younger brother, Minamoto Sanetomo.

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minamoto_no_Yoriie

Minamoto Yorimasa

Lived 1106 to 1180.

Minamoto Yorimitsu

Lived 944 to 1021.

Minamoto Yorinobu

Lived 968 to 1048.

Minamoto Yoritomo

Lived 1147 to 1199.

The 1st Kamakura shōgun.

In office: 1192 to 1199.

Minamoto Yoriyoshi

Lived 995 to 1082.

Minamoto Yoshichika

Died 1117.

Minamoto Yoshihira

Lived 1140 to 1160.

Minamoto Yoshiie

Lived 1041 to 1108.

Minamoto Yoshikata

Died 1155.

Minamoto Yoshikuni

Died 1155.

Minamoto Yoshimitsu

Lived 1056 to 1127.

Minamoto Yoshinaka

Lived 1154 to 1184.

Minamoto Yoshitomo

Lived 1123 to 1160.

Minamoto Yoshitsuna

Died 1134.

Minamoto Yoshitsune

Japanese: 源 義経

Lived 1159 to 1189.

Often Minamoto no Yoshitsune.

Yoshitsune was a late Heian and early Kamakura period general of the Minamoto clan of Japan. Yoshitsune was the ninth son of Minamoto Yoshitomo and his older brother Minamoto Yoritomo founded the Kamakura shogunate.

Yoshitsune was born slightly before the Heiji Rebellion of 1159 in which his father and oldest two brothers were killed. His life was spared and put under the care of Kurama Temple in the capital of Kyoto while Yoritomo was banished to Izu province. Eventually Yoshitsune was put under the protection of Fujiwara no Hidehira, head of the powerful regional Fujiwara clan in Hiraizumi, Mutsu province.

In 1180, Yoshitsune heard that Yoshitomo, now head of the Minamoto clan, had raised an army at the request of Prince Mochihito to fight against the Taira clan which had usurped the power of the emperor. Yoshitsune shortly thereafter joined Yoshitomo along with Minamoto no Noriyori, all brothers that had never before met, in the last of three conflicts between the rival Minamoto and Taira samurai clans in the Gempei War.

Yoshitsune defeated and killed his rival cousin Minamoto Yoshinaka at Awazu in Omi province in the first month of 1184 and in the next month defeated the Taira at the Battle of Ichi no Tani in present day Kobe. In 1185, Yoshitsune defeated the Taira again at the Battle of Yashima in Shikoku and destroyed them at the Battle of Dan no Ura in present day Yamaguchi prefecture.

After the Gempei War, Yoshitsune joined the cloistered Emperor Goshirakawa against his brother Yoritomo. Fleeing to the temporary protection of Fujiwara no Hidehira in Mutsu again, Yoshitomo was betrayed and killed by Hidehira's son Fujiwara no Yasuhira.

Because of Yoshitsune's tragic life and early death, he is one of the greatest folk heroes of Japan, becoming the subject of and influencing many works of Japanese literature and Japanese drama, while the details of his life became legendary.

See Also

Suggested Reading

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minamoto_no_Yoshitsune

Minamoto Yukiie

Died 1186.

Mining

Minobe Tatsukichi

Lived 1873 to 1948.

Minomura Rizaemon

Lived 1821 to 1877.

Mino Province

A province in the area that is today Gifu Prefecture. Mino bordered on Echizen, Hida, Ise, Mikawa, Ōmi, Owari, and Shinano Provinces.

See Also

Echizen Province (pg. X), Gifu Prefecture (pg. X), Hida Province (pg. X), Ise Province (pg. X), Mikawa Province (pg. X), Ōmi Province (pg. X), Owari Province (pg. X), Shinano Province (pg. X),

Minseito

Minshū Shakaitō

Mishima Michitsune

Lived 1835 to 1888.

Mishima Yukio

Lived 14 Jan. 1925 to 25 Nov. 1970.

Novelist. Graduate of Tokyo University.

Works include (to be added).

Misora Hibari

aka Kato Kazue

Lived 1937 to 1989.

Mito City

Capital of Ibaraki Prefecture (pg. X).

Mitsuchi Chūzō

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Takahashi

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

13 Nov 1921

12 June 1922

Tanaka G.

Education

20 Apr 1927

02 June 1927

Tanaka G.

Finance

02 June 1927

02 July 1929

Inukai (Check dates)

Communications

13 Dec 1931

26 May 1932

Saitō

Railways

26 May 1932

08 July 1934

Shidehara

Home Affairs

13 Jan 1946

22 May 1946

Shidehara

Transport

13 Jan 1946

26 Jan 1946

Table 77Cabinet Positions Held by Mitsuchi Chūzō

Mitsui

Mitsukuri Rinsho

Lived 1846 to 1897.

Miura Goro

Lived 1847 to 1926.

Miyagi Prefecture

Area: 7,285 km2 (1995)

Capital: Sendai

Population: 2,310,000 (1996)

Miyake Setsurei

Lived 1860 to 1945.

Miyamoto Musashi

Japanese: 宮本 武蔵

aka Niten (Japanese: 二天 ) (used when signing paintings and drawings)

Lived 1584 to 19 May (13 June?) 1645.

Miyamoto Musashi was a famous Japanese swordsman. Also an accomplished artist.

Much Miyamoto Musashi's life is shrouded in mystery and legends. His place and date of birth are in doubt. Apparently he was born into a samurai family in the village of Miyamoto in the province of Mimasaka. His full name was Shinmen Musashi no Kami Fujiwara no Genshin. This means, "Member of Shinmen family, the family name Musashi, clan Fujiwara, adulthood name Genshin". His childhood name is either Takezō or Bennosuke. The name Musashi is taken from Musashibō Benkei, the warrior monk who served Minamoto no Yoshitsune and known as the great warrior who used 9 weapons.

It is said that Musashi contracted eczema in his infancy, which influenced his appearance. Another story claims that he never took a bath, because he did not want to be surprised unarmed.

According to the introduction of his The Book of Five Rings, where he states some autobiographical details, he had his first successful duel by the age of thirteen. His first opponent was an accomplished samurai, Arima Kihei from Kashima, who fought using Shintō-ryū style.

According to tradition he fought in the Battle of Sekigahara in the troops of the pro-Toyotomi forces as a mercenary. He does not mention this in The Book of Five Rings. Though he had some success in this battle, the Toyotomi side lost and he had barely survived escaping this battle.

After the war was over he left for Edo. According to his adopted son Iori, in 1604 Musashi fought a victorious duel against master swordsman Yoshioka Seijuro using only a bokken, a wooden sword. Reputedly he had a grudge against Yoshioka family for how they had treated his father. This duel was not supposed to take loser's life and thus Musashi left without taking Yoshioka's life. It is said that Seijuro never held a sword afterward as his pride had been shattered. After he had defeated the father, he killed both boys in duels – though the latter one was more of an ambush. Yoshioka family records however claim that Musashi had been hit in the head by Seijuro and lost. In the subsequent battle, Musashi fled the scene. Most duel records from these times praised their wins but rarely mentioned their losses so it is impossible to know what exactly happened. Yet the fact that they had written records at all is a indication that they were survivors of duels.

From 1605 to 1612 he traveled extensively all over Japan in Musha-Shugyo, a warrior pilgrimage during which he honed his skills with duels. He was said to have used bokken in actual duels. Most of duels from these times did not try to take opponent's life and unless both agreed, wooden swords were used. He is also said to have fought over 60 duels and was never defeated. Japanese historians seem to believe that he could not have won all of them alone, without some assistance from his students.

On April 14, 1612 he had his most famous duel, against Sasaki Ganryū who was using a nodachi, a long two-handed sword. Musashi came late and unkempt – possibly to unnerve his opponent – and killed him with a bokken that he had made from an oar to be longer than the nodachi. Kojiro cut the ??? off of Musashi's head and also slashed his hakama before being killed. This showed both his skill and one reason Musashi choose to make a sword longer than Kojiro's. After this fight, did not kill anyone in a duel, preferring instead to fight armed opponents using only wooden swords or sticks as his own weapons. Unable to attack or find an opening, the opponents would often admit defeat.

In 1614–1615, Musashi reputedly joined the troops of Tokugawa Ieyasu when they besieged the Toyotomi family in Ōsaka Castle. 1615 he entered the service of Ogasawara Tadanao in Harima province as a construction supervisor. During his service he adopted a boy called Iori and originated the Enmyo Ryu school of kenjutsu.

In 1627 he began to travel again. In 1634 he settled in Kokura with his stepson Iori. Later they apparently entered the service of daimyō Ogasawara Tadazane when he fought in the Shimabara Rebellion. Iori served with excellence in putting down this rebellion and would gradually rise to the rank of karo, a position equal to a minister. Musashi, however was injured by a thrown rock while scouting in the front line.

Six years later Musashi moved to service of Hosokawa Tadatoshi, daimyō of Kumamoto Castle to train and paint. In 1643 he retired to a cave named Reigandou as a hermit to write The Book of Five Rings. He finished it couple of weeks before his death around June 13, 1645.

After his death, various legends began to appear. Most talk about his feats in kenjutsu and other martial arts. Others tell that he killed giant lizards in Echizen. He gained the stature of Kensei, a "sword saint" and various tales connect him with other contemporary martial artists.

Musashi perfected the two-sword kenjutsu technique he called niten'ichi (二天一, "two heavens as one") or nitouichi (二刀一, "two swords as one"). In this technique, the swordsman uses both katana and wakizashi at the same time. Reputedly, the two-handed movements of temple drummers inspired him. He was probably able to do this due to his unusually large size – most of his contemporaries held their katana with both hands.

Musashi was a loner. He had no formal training in any of the formal kenjutsu schools – aside from dueling with their representatives. He also had a rather no-nonsense approach to fighting with no additional frills or aesthetic considerations. This was probably due to his real-life combat experience. Musashi believed that victory was the aim of battle, not dieing for one's lord or anything romantic like that. This meant, among other things, not preferring one sword style or even weapon over any other. The weapon that gives the best chance of winning is the best weapon to use for that fight – Musashi's use of an oversized sword carved from an oar in his duel with Sasaki Kojiro is an example of this.

Especially later in his life Musashi also followed the more artistic side of bushido. He made various Zen brush paintings and calligraphy and sculpted wood and metal. Even in the Book of Five Rings he emphasizes that samurai should understand other professions as well.

Excerpt from The Book of Five Rings

This is the way for men who wish to learn my strategy:

  1. Do not think dishonestly.

  2. The Way is in training.

  3. Become acquainted with every art.

  4. Know the Ways of all professions.

  5. Distinguish between gain and loss in worldly matters.

  6. Develop intuitive judgment and understanding for everything.

  7. Perceive those things which cannot be seen.

  8. Pay attention even to trifles.

  9. Do nothing which is of no use.

Writings of Miyamoto Musashi

Gorin No Sho The Book of Five Rings, (in reference to the Five Rings of Zen Buddhism)

The 19 Articles of Self-Discipline

The 35 Articles of Swordsmanship

Dokkodo, (The Path of Self-Reliance)

Miyamoto Musashi in Fiction

Thirty-six films have been made about Miyamoto Musashi.

(find and insert list)

Yoshikawa Eiji's famous novel Musashi – originally serialized in Asahi Shinbun prior to World War Two – is more or less based on historical events with added fictitious characters. The comic book Vagabond is based on this novel. The movies Samurai I, II, and III are also based on the novel Musashi, and are regarded as Japan's Gone With the Wind. They star Mifune Toshirō, the long term collaborator of Kurosawa Akira, as Musashi.

See Also

Sasaki Ganryū (pg XX), Mifune Toshirō (pg 214), Kurosawa Akira (pg XXX),

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miyamoto_Musashi

Miyazaki City

Capital of Miyazaki Prefecture (pg XXX).

Miyazaki Prefecture

Area: 7,734 km2 (1995)

Capital: Miyazaki

Population: 1,190,000 (1996)

Miyazawa Kiichi

Prime Minister from 5 November 1991 to 9 August 1993. (Replaced by Hosokawa Morihiro (pg XXX)).

Miyoshi Chōkei

Lived 1523 to 1564.

Samurai.

Mizuno Nobumoto

Died 1576.

Son of Mizuno Tadamasa. Brother of Mizuno Tadashige.

Switched his allegiance from the Imagawa family to Oda Nobuhide.

Killed by Tokugawa Ieyasu on orders from Oda Nobunaga. (Why?)

Mizuno Rentarō

Lived

Cabinet Positions Held by Mizuno Rentarō

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Terauchi

Home Affairs

23 Apr 1918

29 Sep 1918

Katō Tomosaburō

Home Affairs

12 June 1922

02 Sep 1923

Kiyoura

Home Affairs

07 Jan 1924

11 June 1924

Tanaka G.

Education

02 June 1927

25 May 1928

Table 78Cabinet Positions Held by Mizuno Rentarō

Mizuno Tadashige

Lived 1541 to 1600.

Son of Mizuno Tadamasa. Brother of Mizuno Nobumoto.

Was given his brother's fief of Kariya (?? koku) in Mikawa.

Was killed by Kagai Hidemasa. (Why?)

Mochizuke Keisuke

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Tanaka G.

Communications

20 Apr 1927

23 May 1928

Tanaka G.

Home Affairs

23 May 1928

02 July 1929

Okada

Communications

12 Sep 1935

09 Mar 1936

Table 79Cabinet Positions Held by Mochizuke Keisuke

Mommu-tennō

The 42nd emperor of Japan.

Reigned 697 to 707.

Momozono-tennō

The 116th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 1747 to 1762.

Mongol Invasions

Montoku-tennō

The 55th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 850 to 858.

Mori Arinori

Lived 1847 to 1889.

Mōri Family

Family of daimyō, descended from Ōe Hiromoto. Established themselves in Aki Province.

Mori Kaku

Lived 1883 to 1932.

Morikuni

Lived 1301 to 1333.

The 9th Kamakura Shōgun.

Ruled 1308 to 1333.

Son of the Shōgun Hisaakira. Grandson of the Emperor Gofukakusa.

See Also

Gofukakusa-tennō (pg. X), Hisaakira (pg. X), Kamakura Shōgunate (pg. X),

Mōri Motonari

Lived 1497 to 1571.

Morinaga

Lived 1308 to 1335.

The 10th Kamakura Shōgun.

Ruled 1333 to 1334.

Son of the Emperor Godaigo and Minamoto Chikako.

See Also

Gofukakusa-tennō (pg. X), Hisaakira (pg. X), Kamakura Shōgunate (pg. X),

Mori Nagayoshi

Mori Ogai

Lived 1862 to 1922.

Morioka City

Capital of Iwate Prefecture (pg. X)

Mōri Takamoto

Lived

Mōri Terumoto

Lived 22 Jan. 1553 to 27 April 1625

Son of Mōri Takamoto.

Fought against Toyotomi Hideyoshi but was eventually overcome. Participated in the Kūshū campaign (1587) on Hideyoshi's side.

Built Hiroshima Castle.

Terumoto was one of the five Tairō appointed by Hideyoshi.

At the height of his power, Terumoto controlled 1.2 million koku. (when? where?)

Sided against Tokugawa Ieysasu but was not present at the Battle of Sekigahara. Terumoto was in Ōsaka Castle at the time and surrendered to Ieyasu soon after Sekigahara. Ieyasu reduced Terumoto's domains, leaving him only Nagato and Suō Provinces, worth 369,000 koku total.

See Also

Hiroshima Castle (pg. X), Kyūshū Campaign (pg. X), Mōri Takamoto (pg. X), Nagato Province (pg. X), Ōsaka Castle (pg. X), Sekigahara, Battle of (pg. X), Suō Province (pg. X), Tairō (pg. X), Tokugawa Ieysasu (pg. X), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (pg. X),

Moriyama Hisakane

Mori Yoshirō

Born July 14, 1937 in Ishikawa Prefecture.

Prime Minister from 5 April 2000 to 4 July 2000 and 4 July 2000 to 26 April 2001. Replaced by Koizumi Jun'ichirō (pg XXX).

Motoda Eifu

aka Motoda Nakazane

Lived 1818 to 1891

Motoda Hajime

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Yamamoto

Communications

20 Feb 1913

16 Apr 1914

Hara

Railways

15 May 1920

13 Nov 1921

Takahashi

Railways

13 Nov 1921

12 June 1922

Table 80Cabinet Positions Held by Motoda Hajime

Motoori Norinaga

Lived 1730 to 1801.

Mukai Chiaki

Ms. Mukai was the first Japanese woman to become an astronaut. As of September 2001, she has participated in two missions on the U.S. space shuttle.

Munetaka

Lived 1242 to 1274.

The 6th Kamakura Shōgun.

Ruled 1252 to 1266.

Son of the Emperor Gosaga.

Replaced the deposed Fujiwara Yoritsuga as shōgun.

See Also

Gosaga-tennō (pg. X), Fujiwara Yoritsuga (pg. X), Kamakura Shōgunate (pg. X),

Murakami-tennō

The 62nd emperor of Japan.

Lived 2 June 926 to 25 May 967.

Reigned 20 April 946 to 25 May 967.

Father of Reizei-tennō (pg XXX).

Murakami Yoshikiyo

Lived 1501 to 1573.

Fought against the both Takeda Nobutora and Takeda Shingen. Was allied with Uesugi Kenshin.

Fought at (one or more of?) the Battles of Kawanakajima.

See Also

Kawanakajima, Battles of (pg. X), Takeda Nobutora (pg. X), Takeda Shingen (pg. X), Uesugi Kenshin (pg. X),

Murasaki Shikibu

Died 992.

Daughter of Fujiwara Tametoki. Wife of Fujiwara Nobutaka.

The author of The Tale of Genji (pg 352), a masterpiece of world literature.

Also left a diary, appropriately enough known as The Dairy of Murasaki Shikibu.

Murase Naokai

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

2nd Konoe

Chief of Legislative Bureau

22 July 1940

18 July 1941

3rd Konoe

Chief of Legislative Bureau

18 July 1941

18 Oct 1941

Suzuki K.

Chief of Legislative Bureau

07 Apr 1945

17 Aug 1945

Higashikuni

Chief of Legislative Bureau

17 Aug 1945

09 Oct 1945

Table 81Cabinet Positions Held by Murase Naokai

Murata Shōzō

Lived

Cabinet Positions Held by Murata Shōzō

Cabinet

Position

From

To

2nd Konoe

Communications

22 July 1940

18 July 1941

2nd Konoe

Railways

22 July 1940

28 Sep 1940

3rd Konoe

Communications

18 July 1941

18 Oct 1941

3rd Konoe

Railways

18 July 1941

18 Oct 1941

Table 82Cabinet Positions Held by Murata Shōzō

Murayama Ryohei

Lived 1850 to 1933.

Murayama Tomiichi

Prime Minister from 30 June 1994 to 11 January 1996. (Replaced by Hashimoto Ryūtarō (pg XXX)).

Muromachi Period

Japanese: 室町時代 (Muromachi Jidai)

The Muromachi period is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. The period marks the governance of the Ashikaga shōgunate, which was officially established in 1336 by Ashikaga Takauji. The period ended in 1573 when the 15th and last shōgun Ashikaga Yoshiaki was driven out of Kyōto by Oda Nobunaga.

The early years of 1336 to 1392 of the Muromachi period is also known as the Nanboku-cho or Northern and Southern Court period. The later years of 1467 to the end of the Muromachi period is also known as the Sengoku period.

Ashikaga Bakufu

The ensuing period of Ashikaga rule (1336-1573) was called Muromachi for the district in Kyōto where the third shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu established his residence in 1378. What distinguished the Ashikaga bakufu from that of Kamakura was that, whereas Kamakura had existed in equilibrium with the Kyōto court, Ashikaga took over the remnants of the imperial government. Nevertheless, the Ashikaga bakufu was not as strong as the Kamakura had been and was greatly preoccupied by the civil war. Not until the rule of Yoshimitsu (as third shogun, 1368-94, and chancellor, 1394-1408) did a semblance of order emerge.

Yoshimitsu allowed the constables, who had had limited powers during the Kamakura period, to become strong regional rulers, later called daimy. In time, a balance of power evolved between the shogun and the daimyō; the three most prominent daimyō families rotated as deputies to the shogun at Kyōto. Yoshimitsu was finally successful in reunifying the Northern Court and the Southern Court in 1392, but, despite his promise of greater balance between the imperial lines, the Northern Court maintained control over the throne thereafter. The line of shoguns gradually weakened after Yoshimitsu and increasingly lost power to the daimyō and other regional strongmen. The shogun's decisions about imperial succession became meaningless, and the daimyō backed their own candidates. In time, the Ashikaga family had its own succession problems, resulting finally in the Onin War (1467-77), which left Kyōto devastated and effectively ended the national authority of the bakufu. The power vacuum that ensued launched a century of anarchy (see Provincial Wars and Foreign Contacts).

Economic and Cultural Developments

Contact with Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) China was renewed during the Muromachi period after the Chinese sought support in suppressing Japanese pirates in coastal areas of China. Japanese pirates of this era and region were referred to as 倭寇, wakō, by the Chinese. Wanting to improve relations with China and to rid Japan of the wakō threat, Yoshimitsu accepted a relationship with the Chinese that was to last for half a century. Japanese wood, sulfur, copper ore, swords, and folding fans were traded for Chinese silk, porcelain, books, and coins, in what the Chinese considered tribute but the Japanese saw as profitable trade.

During the time of the Ashikaga bakufu, a new national culture, called Muromachi culture, emerged from the bakufu headquarters in Kyōto to reach all levels of society. Zen Buddhism played a large role in spreading not only religious but also artistic influences, especially those derived from Chinese painting of the Chinese Song (960-1279), Yuan, and Ming dynasties. The proximity of the imperial court and the bakufu resulted in a commingling of imperial family members, courtiers, daimyō, samurai, and Zen priests. Art of all kinds--architecture, literature, No drama, comedy, poetry, the tea ceremony, landscape gardening, and flower arranging--all flourished during Muromachi times.

Shintoism

There also was renewed interest in Shinto, which had quietly coexisted with Buddhism during the centuries of the latter's predominance. In fact, Shinto, which lacked its own scriptures and had few prayers, as a result of syncretic practices begun in the Nara period, had widely adopted Shingon Buddhist rituals. Between the eighth and fourteenth centuries, Shintoism was nearly totally absorbed by Buddhism and became known as Ryobu Shinto (Dual Shinto). The Mongol invasions in the late thirteenth century, however, had evoked a national consciousness of the role of the kamikaze in defeating the enemy. Less than fifty years later (1339-43), Kitabatake Chikafusa (1293-1354), the chief commander of the Southern Court forces, wrote the Jin'nōshōtōki (神皇正統記, Chronicle of the Direct Descent of the Divine Sovereigns). This chronicle emphasized the importance of maintaining the divine descent of the imperial line from Amaterasu to the current emperor, a condition that gave Japan a special national polity (kokutai). Besides reenforcing the concept of the emperor as a deity, the Jin'nōshōtōki provided a Shinto view of history, which stressed the divine nature of all Japanese and the country's spiritual supremacy over China and India. As a result, a change gradually occurred in the balance between the dual Buddhist-Shinto religious practice. Between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries, Shinto reemerged as the primary belief system, developed its own philosophy and scripture (based on Confucian and Buddhist canons), and became a powerful nationalistic force.

Provincial Wars and Foreign Contacts

The Onin War led to serious political fragmentation and obliteration of domains: a great struggle for land and power ensued among bushi chieftains until the mid-sixteenth century. Peasants rose against their landlords and samurai against their overlords as central control virtually ceased. The imperial house was left impoverished, and the bakufu was controlled by contending chieftains in Kyōto. The provincial domains that emerged after the Onin War were smaller and easier to control. Many new small daimyō arose from among the samurai who had overthrown their great overlords. Border defenses were improved, and wellfortified castle towns were built to protect the newly opened domains, for which land surveys were made, roads built, and mines opened. New house laws provided practical means of administration, stressing duties and rules of behavior. Emphasis was put on success in war, estate management, and finance. Threatening alliances were guarded against through strict marriage rules. Aristocratic society was overwhelmingly military in character. The rest of society was controlled in a system of vassalage. The shoen were obliterated, and court nobles and absentee landlords were dispossessed. The new daimyō directly controlled the land, keeping the peasantry in permanent serfdom in exchange for protection.

Economic Effect of War Between States

Most wars of the period were short and localized, although they occurred throughout Japan. By 1500 the entire country was engulfed in civil wars. Rather than disrupting the local economies, however, the frequent movement of armies stimulated the growth of transportation and communications, which in turn provided additional revenues from customs and tolls. To avoid such fees, commerce shifted to the central region, which no daimyō had been able to control, and to the Inland Sea. Economic developments and the desire to protect trade achievements brought about the establishment of merchant and artisan guilds.

Western Influence

By the end of the Muromachi period, the first Europeans had arrived. The Portuguese landed in southern Kyushu in 1543 and within two years were making regular port calls. The Spanish arrived in 1587, followed by the Dutch in 1609. The Japanese began to attempt studies of European civilization in depth, and new opportunities were presented for the economy, along with serious political challenges. European firearms, fabrics, glassware, clocks, tobacco, and other Western innovations were traded for Japanese gold and silver. Significant wealth was accumulated through trade, and lesser daimyō, especially in Kyushu, greatly increased their power. Provincial wars were made more deadly with the introduction of firearms, such as muskets and cannons, and greater use of infantry.



Christianity

Christianity had an impact on Japan, largely through the efforts of the Jesuits, led first by Saint Francis Xavier (1506- 52), who arrived in Kagoshima in southern Kyushu in 1549. Both daimyō and merchants seeking better trade arrangements as well as peasants were among the converts. By 1560 Kyōto had become another major area of missionary activity in Japan. In 1568 the port of Nagasaki, in northwestern Kyushu, was established by a Christian daimyō and was turned over to Jesuit administration in 1579. By 1582 there were as many as 150,000 converts (two percent of the population) and 200 churches. But bakufu tolerance for this alien influence diminished as the country became more unified and the openness of the period decreased. Proscriptions against Christianity began in 1587 and outright persecutions in 1597. Although foreign trade was still encouraged, it was closely regulated, and by 1640 the exclusion and suppression of Christianity had become national policy (see Tokugawa Period, 1600-1867 , this ch.; Religious and Philosophical Traditions , ch. 2).

Sources and Suggested Reading

This article incorporates public domain text from the Library of Congress Country Studies. – Japan available at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html.

See Also

Nanboku-cho, Sengoku, Kemmu restoration, Azuchi-Momoyama period

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muromachi_period

Musashi Province

A province in the area that is today Saitama and Tōkyō Prefectures. Musashi bordered on Kai, Kōzuke, Sagami, Shimōsa, and Shimotsuke Provinces.

See Also

Kai Province (pg. X), Kōzuke Province (pg. X), Sagami Province (pg. X), Saitama Prefecture (pg. X), Shimōsa Province (pg. X), Shimotsuke Province (pg. X), Tōkyō Prefecture (pg. X),

Muto Sanji

Lived 1867 to 1934.

Mutsu Munemitsu

Lived 1844 to 1897.

Cabinet Positions Held by Mutsu Munemitsu

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Yamagata

Agriculture & Commerce

17 May 1890

06 May 1891

1st Matsukata

Agriculture & Commerce

06 May 1891

14 Mar 1892

2nd Itō

Foreign Affairs

08 Aug 1892

05 June 1895

2nd Itō

Foreign Affairs

03 Apr 1896

30 May 1896

Table 83Cabinet Positions Held by Mutsu Munemitsu

Mutsu Province

A province that is today Aomori Prefecture. Mutsu bordered on Rikuchū and Ugo Provinces.

See Also

Aomori Province (pg. X), Rikuchū Province (pg. X), Ugo Province (pg. X),

Nabeyama Sadachika – Nunobeyama, Battle of

Nabeyama Sadachika

Lived 1901 to 1979.

Nagai Kafu

Lived 1879 to 1959.

Nagai Ryūtarō

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Saitō

Colonization

26 May 1932

08 July 1934

1st Konoe

Communications

04 June 1937

05 Jan 1939

Abe

Communications

30 Aug 1939

16 Jan 1940

Abe

Railways

30 Aug 1939

29 Nov 1939

Table 84Cabinet Positions Held by Nagai Ryūtarō

Nagakute, Battle of

Took place 1584.

Hideyoshi forces raided into Mikawa. Ieyasu attacked them from behind. After soom initial skirmishing, the sides faced off near the village of Nagakute. Mori Nagayoshi and Ikeda Nobuteru, two of Hideyoshi's commanders, were killed in the fighting. However, Hideyoshi was already on his way with reinforcements. It became a stalemate and with no advantage to continued fighting, both sides withdrew.

See Also

Toyotomi Hideyoshi (pg. X), Tokugawa Ieysasu (pg. X), Mikawa Province (pg. X), Mori Nagayoshi (pg. X), Ikeda Nobuteru (pg. X),

Nagano City

The capital city of Nagano Prefecture.

Nagano Prefecture

Area: 13,585 km2 (1995)

Capital: Nagano

Population: 2,190,000 (1996)

Nagasaki, Bombing of

On 9 August 1945, the United States military dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Nagasaki. This was three days after a similar bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. Japan surrendered six days later, on 15 August 1945.

The role of the atomic bombs in bringing about Japan's surrender is a major historical controversy. Some historians suggest that the bombings were militarily unnecessary, perhaps more of a show of force against the Soviet Union. Others contend that the only alternative to the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was an invasion of the home islands themselves---which could have resulted in hundreds of thousands or possibly millions of Allied and Japanese soldiers and civilians injured or killed. Thus, in this view, the power demonstated by the Allies in the form of the atom bombs was needed to convince the Japanese government to accept surrender and spare both sides a protracted and horribly destructive invasion.

President Truman authorized the use of the weapons and insisted to the end of his life that he considered them no different than any other weapon at his disposal.

The firebombing of Tokyo killed a comparable number of people (more during the bombing and as a result of the fires, but possibly fewer long term victims as the firebombs did not give anyone radiation sickness). The biggest difference being that the bombing of Tokyo involved many planes and thousands of bombs whereas Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by one plane and one bomb each.

Nagasaki lies at the head of a long bay which forms the best natural harbor on the southern Japanese home island of Kyūshū. The main commercial and residential area of the city lies on a small plain near the end of the bay. Two rivers divided by a mountain spur form the two main valleys in which the city lies. This mountain spur and the irregular lay-out of the city tremendously reduced the area of destruction, so that at first glance Nagasaki appeared to have been less devastated than Hiroshima.

The heavily build-up area of the city is confined by the terrain to less than 4 square miles out of a total of about 35 square miles in the city as a whole.

The city of Nagasaki had been one of the largest sea ports in southern Japan and was of great war-time importance because of its many and varied industries, including the production of ordnance, ships, military equipment, and other war materials. The narrow long strip attacked was of particular importance because of its industries. In contrast to many modern aspects of Nagasaki, the residences almost without exception were of flimsy, typical Japanese construction, consisting of wood or wood-frame buildings, with wood walls with or without plaster, and tile roofs. Many of the smaller industries and business establishments were also housed in wooden buildings or flimsily built masonry buildings. Nagasaki had been permitted to grow for many years without conforming to any definite city zoning plan and therefore residences were constructed adjacent to factory buildings and to each other almost as close as it was possible to build them throughout the entire industrial valley.

Nagasaki had not been subjected to large scale bombing prior to the explosion of the atomic bomb there. On August 1st, 1945, however, a number of high explosive bombs were dropped on the city. A few of these bombs hit in the shipyards and dock areas in the southwest portion of the city. Several of the bombs hit the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works and six bombs landed at the Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital, with three direct hits on buildings there. While the damage from these few bombs were relatively small, it created considerable concern in Nagasaki and a number of people, principally school children, were evacuated to rural areas for safety, thus reducing the population in the city at the time of the atomic attack.

On the morning of August 9th, 1945, at about 7:50 A.M., Japanese time, an air raid alert was sounded in Nagasaki, but the “All clear” signal was given at 8:30. When only two B-29 superfortresses were sighted at 10:53 the Japanese apparently assumed that the planes were only on reconnaissance and no further alarm was given. A few moments later, at 11:00 o'clock, the observation B-29 dropped instruments attached to three parachutes and at 11:02 the other plane released the atomic bomb.

The bomb exploded high over the industrial valley of Nagasaki, almost midway between the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, in the south, and the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works (Torpedo Works), in the north, the two principal targets of the city.

Despite its extreme importance, the first bombing mission on Hiroshima had been almost routine. The second mission was not so uneventful. Again the crew was specially trained and selected; but bad weather introduced some momentous complications. These complications are best described in the brief account of the mission's weaponeer, Comdr., now Capt., F. L. Ashworth, U.S.N., who was in technical command of the bomb and was charged with the responsibility of insuring that the bomb was successfully dropped at the proper time and on the designated target. His narrative runs as follows:

``The night of our take-off was one of tropical rain squalls, and flashes of lightning stabbed into the darkness with disconcerting regularity. The weather forecast told us of storms all the way from the Marianas to the Empire. Our rendezvous was to be off the southeast coast of Kyūshū, some 1500 miles away. There we were to join with our two companion observation B-29's that took off a few minutes behind us. Skillful piloting and expert navigation brought us to the rendezvous without incident.
``About five minutes after our arrival, we were joined by the first of our B-29's. The second, however, failed to arrive, having apparently been thrown off its course by storms during the night. We waited 30 minutes and then proceeded without the second plane toward the target area.
``During the approach to the target the special instruments installed in the plane told us that the bomb was ready to function. We were prepared to drop the second atomic bomb on Japan. But fate was against us, for the target was completely obscured by smoke and haze. Three times we attempted bombing runs, but without success. Then with anti-aircraft fire bursting around us and with a number of enemy fighters coming up after us, we headed for our secondary target, Nagasaki.
``The bomb burst with a blinding flash and a huge column of black smoke swirled up toward us. Out of this column of smoke there boiled a great swirling mushroom of gray smoke, luminous with red, flashing flame, that reached to 40,000 feet in less than 8 minutes. Below through the clouds we could see the pall of black smoke ringed with fire that covered what had been the industrial area of Nagasaki.
``By this time our fuel supply was dangerously low, so after one quick circle of Nagasaki, we headed direct for Okinawa for an emergency landing and refueling''.

References:

THE ATOMIC BOMBINGS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI by The Manhattan Engineer District, 1946. (Available online)

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://www.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Nagasaki

Nagasaki City

The capital of Nagasaki Prefecture.

The second city in Japan to be destroyed by an atomic bomb. This was on 9 August 1945.

Nagasaki is a city at the south-western coast of Japan. Founded before 1500, it was originally a secluded harbor village with little historical significance until contact with European explorers in the mid-16th century, when a Portuguese ship accidentally landed at Kagoshima Prefecture in 1542. The zealous Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier arrived in another part of the territory in 1549, but although he left for China in 1551 and died soon after departure his followers who remained behind converted a number of daimyō (warlords). The most notable among them was Omura Sumitada, who derived great profit from his conversion through an accompanying deal to receive a portion of the trade from Portuguese ships at a port they established in Nagasaki in 1571 with his assistance.

The little harbor village quickly grew into a diverse port city, and Portuguese products imported through Nagasaki (such as tobacco, bread, tempura, sponge-cake, and new clothing styles) were assimilated into popular Japanese culture. The Portuguese also brought with them many goods of Chinese origin.

In 1587 Nagasaki's prosperity was threatened when Hideyoshi Toyotomi came to power. Concerned with the large Christian influence in southern Japan, he ordered the expulsion of all missionaries. Omura had given the Jesuits partial administrative control of Nagasaki, and the city now returned to imperial control. Japanese and foreign Christians were persecuted, with Hideyoshi crucifying 26 Christians in Nagasaki in 1596 to deter any attempt to usurp his power. Portuguese traders were not ostracized, however, and so the city continued to thrive.

When Tokugawa Ieyasu took power almost twenty years later conditions did not much improve. Christianity was banned outright in 1614 and all missionaries were deported, as well as daimyō who would not renounce the religion. A brutal campaign of persecution followed, with thousands across Nagasaki and other parts of Japan killed or tortured.

The Christians did put up some initial resistance, with the Nagasaki Shimabara enclave of destitute Christians and local peasants rising in rebellion in 1637. Ultimately numbering 40,000, they captured Hara Castle and humiliated the local daimyō. The shōgun dispatched 120,000 soldiers to quash the uprising, thus ending Japan's brief 'Christian Century.' Christians still remained, of course, but all went into hiding, still the victims of occasional inquisitions.

The Dutch had been quietly making inroads into Japan during this time, despite the shōgunate's official policy of ending foreign influence within the country. The Dutch demonstrated that they were interested in trading alone, and demonstrated their commitment during the Shimabara rebellion by firing on the Christians in support of the shōgun. In 1641 they were granted Dejima, an artificial island in Nagasaki Bay, as a base of operations. From this date until 1855, Japan's contact with the outside world was limited to Nagasaki. In 1720 the ban on Dutch books was lifted, causing hundreds of scholars to flood into Nagasaki to study European science and art.

After US Commodore Matthew Perry landed in 1853 and the shōgunate crumbled shortly afterward, Japan opened its doors again. Nagasaki became a free port in 1859 and modernization began in earnest in 1868. With the Meiji Restoration, Nagasaki quickly began to assume some economic dominance. Its main industry was ship building.

This very industry would eventually make it a target in World War II. At 11:02 am on August 9 1945, the American B-29 Superfortress “Bock's Car,” in search of the shipyards, instead spotting the Mitsubishi Arms Works through a break in the clouds. It dropped the “Fat Man” nuclear bomb on this target, the second nuclear bomb to be detonated over Japan. 75,000 of Nagasaki's 240,000 residents were killed, followed by the death of at least as many from resulting sickness and injury.

The city rebuilt after the war, albeit dramatically changed, as any city would be after such colossal damage. New temples were built, and new churches as well, since the Christian presence never died out and even increased dramatically in numbers after the war. Some of the rubble was left as a memorial, like the one-legged torii gate and a stone arch near ground zero. New structures were also raised as memorials, such as the Atomic Bomb Museum. But Nagasaki also remains first and foremost a port city, supporting a rich shipping industry and setting a strong example of perseverance and peace.

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://www.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Nagasaki

See Also

Hiroshima, Bombing of (pg. X), Nagasaki, Bombing of (pg X), Hiroshima City (pg. X)

Nagasaki Prefecture

Area: 4091 km2 (1995)

Capital: Nagasaki

Population: 1,550,000 (1996)

Nagashima, Seige of (1571)

Took place in 1571.

Nagashima was a fortress controlled by the Ikkō-ikki. Actually, it was a whole series of fortresses and defensive works. Nobunaga attacked three times over the course of four years, before finally destroying Nagashima itself.

Oda's forces attacked across a river. Unfortunately, the samurai's horses got stuck in the mud. The samurai that managed to drag themselves to shore --- while being fired on --- were drowned when the defenders opened a dike and flooded the area. It was a total disaster for Nobunaga.

See Also

Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Ikkō-ikki (pg. X), Nagashima, Seige of (1573) (pg. X), Nagashima, Seige of (1574) (pg. X),

Nagashima, Seige of (1573)

Took place in 1573.

Nobunaga's run of ill-luck with the Ikkō-ikki continued when a rainstorm hit just as he was about to open the battle with his arquebuses. The rain rendered them useless and left his men in a weak defensive position. The Ikkō-ikki troops immediately counter-attacked. Their arquebuses were covered during the storm and they started using them as soon as the rain let up. The Ikkō-ikki troops came close to killing Nobunaga. He retreated.

See Also

Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Ikkō-ikki (pg. X), Nagashima, Seige of (1571) (pg. X), Nagashima, Third Seige of (1574) (pg. X),

Nagashima, Seige of (1574)

Fate was kinder to Oda Nobunaga on his third attempt to reduce the fortress at Nagashima.

While a fleet of ships lead by Kuki Yoshitaka blockaded and bombarded the area, Oda took the outer forts. Eventually, the defenders were forced back, into the castles of Ganshōji and Nagashima. There were about 20,000 of them and they were now completely cut off. As their situation worsened, it became more and more pointless for Oda's enemies to try to help them, and the defenders found themselves without anyone willing to try to help them.

Oda's men built a wooden wall from one outer fort to another, cutting the Ikkō-ikki off from the outside and preventing them from seeing what was coming. Nobunaga had wood piled against the wall and lit of fire. The fire spread to Ganshōji and Nagashima. All 20,000 of the defenders were killed.

See Also

Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Ikkō-ikki (pg. X), Nagashima, Seige of (1571) (pg. X), Nagashima, Seige of (1573) (pg. X), Kuki Yoshitaka (pg. X),

Nagashima Shigeo

Baseball player and later the manager of the Tokyo Giants. He retired at the end of the 2001 season.

Nagashino, Battle of

1573, Nagashino in Mikawa

Takeda Katsuyori beseiged Okudaira Nobumasa at Nagashino Castle in 1573. Nobumasa was holding the castle for Tokugawa Ieyasu. Both Ieyasu and Oda Nobunaga sent troops and Katsuyori was defeated.

Nagashino Castle

Castle in Mikawa Province. Originally the home of the Suganuma family, Tokugawa Ieyasu took the castle in 1573. Later that year, Tokugawa and Oda forces combined to defeat Takeda Katsuyori when besieged Nagashino Castle.

Nagato Province

Japanese: 長門

Nagato, often called Chōshū, was an old province of Japan. It was at the extreme western end of Hōnshū, in the area that is today Yamaguchi Prefecture. Nagato bordered on Iwami and Suō provinces.

In 1871, with the abolition of the domain and the establishment of the prefectures, the provinces of Nagato and Suo were combined and eventually became today's Yamaguchi prefecture.

The oligarchy that came to power as a result of the Meiji Restoration of 1868 had a strong representation from Chōshū, as Itō Hirobumi, Yamagata Aritomo, and Kido Kōin were from the province. Other natives famous for their role in the restoration include Yoshida Shoin, Takasugi Shinsaku, Kido Takayoshi (aka Katsura Kogoro) and Kusaka Genzui among others.

See Also

Iwami Province (pg. X), Suō Province (pg. X), Yamaguchi Prefecture (pg. X), Meiji Restoration (pg. X)

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nagato_Province

Nagoya Castle

Shiba Yoshimune built the original castle around 1525. Oda Nobuhide took it from Imagawa Ujitoyo in 1532, but later abandoned it.

In 1610 Ieyasu ordered the various daimyō to help with the building of a new castle on the site.

Nagoya City (Aichi Prefecture)

The capital city of Aichi Prefecture (pg XXX).

Nagoya City (Nagasaki Prefecture)

A city in Nagasaki Prefecture. Toyotomi Hideyoshi directed the invasion of Korea from Nagoya, at that time a part of Hizen province.

Naha City

The capital city of Okinawa Prefecture (pg XXX).

Nairan

Old government position which translates as `Inspector of Imperial Documents.'

Naitō Family (Mikawa)

Descended from Fujiwara Hidesato (pg. X).

Naitō Family (Tamba)

Genzaemon $\rightarrow$ Yukiyasu

Naitō Genzaemon

Father of Naitō Yukiyasu.

Served Oda Nobunaga. Was given Kameyama (200,000 koku) in Tamba.

Naitō Masanaga

Lived 1568 to 1634.

Naitō Nobunari

Lived 1545 to 1612.

Naitō Tadakatsu

Died 1680.

Naitō Yukiyasu

Died 1626.

Baptised in 1564. Was banished to Manila in 1614.

Nakae Chomin

aka Nakae Tokusuke.

Lived 1847 to 1901.

Philosopher. Studied in France from 1871 to 1874. Translated some of the writings of J.J. Rousseau into Japanese.

Nakagawa Family

Daimyō family descended from Minamoto Yorimitsu (pg. X).

Nakagawa Hidemasa

Eldest son of Nakagawa Kiyohide.

Died fighting in Korea.

Nakagawa Hidenari

Lived 1570 to 1612.

Nakagawa Kiyohide

Lived 1542 to 1583.

Nakahashi Tokugorō

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Hara

Education

29 Sep 1918

13 Nov 1921

Takahashi

Education

13 Nov 1921

12 June 1922

Tanaka G.

Commerce & Industry

20 Apr 1927

02 July 1929

Inukai (Check dates)

Home Affairs

13 Dec 1931

16 Mar 1932

Table 85Cabinet Positions Held by Nakahashi Tokugorō

Nakajima Chikuhei

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Konoe

Railways

04 June 1937

05 Jan 1939

Higashikuni

Munitions

17 Aug 1945

26 Aug 1945

Higashikuni

Commerce & Industry

26 Aug 1945

09 Oct 1945

Table 86Cabinet Positions Held by Nakajima Chikuhei

Nakamigawa Hikojiro

Lived 1854 to 1901.

Nakamikado-tennō

The 114th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 1710 to 1735.

Nakamura Masanao

aka Nakamura Keiu.

Lived 1832 to 1891.

Nakano Seigo

Lived 1886 to 1943.

Nakasone Yasuhiro

Prime Minister from 26 November 1982 to 27 December 1983, 27 December 1983 to 22 July 1986, and 22 July 1986 to 6 November 1987. Replaced by Takeshita Noboru (pg XXX).

Nakayama Miki

Lived 1798 to 1887.

Namamugi Incident

Nanao, Battle of

Nara City

The capital city of Nara Prefecture.

Narahashi Wataru

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Shidehara

Chief of Legislative Bureau

09 Oct 1945

13 Jan 1946

Shidehara

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

13 Jan 1946

22 May 1946

Shidehara

State

26 Feb 1946

22 May 1946

Table 87Cabinet Positions Held by Narahashi Wataru

Nara City

The capital of Nara Prefecture.

Nara Prefecture

Area: 3,691 km2 (1995)

Capital: Nara

Population: 1,440,000 (1996)

Narinaga

Lived 1325 to 1338.

The 11th and last Kamakura Shōgun.

Ruled 1334 to 1338.

Son of the Emperor Godaigo.

Deposed and killed, along with his brother, Tsunenaga, in 1338.

See Also

Godaigo-tennō (pg. X), Kamakura Shōgunate (pg. X),

Natsume Soseki

aka Natsume Kinnosuke.

Lived 1867 to 1916.

Nengō

Japanese: 年号

A calendar system used in Japan to count years.

Like similar systems in East Asia, the era name system was originally derived from Chinese Imperial practice, although the Japanese system is independent from the Chinese or Korean calendar systems. Unlike other similar systems, the Japanese era name is still in use. Government offices usually require era names and years for official papers.

Sometimes an era name is expressed with the first letter of the romanized name. For example, S55 means Showa 55 years. With 64 years, Showa is the longest era.

Modern Era Names

With the modernization of Japan after the ascension of the Meiji Emperor and now under current Japanese law since 1979, it has become practice to change era names only upon occasion of imperial succession. Also, the deceased emperor will thereafter be referred to as his corresponding era name posthumously. Under current law, only males can assume the throne.

In the Japanese language, the current emperor on the throne is almost always referred to as Tennō Heika (天皇陛下, His Majesty the Emperor) or rarely and less formally as Kinjō Tennō (今上天皇, current emperor) and even more rarely, if ever by his name Akihito. To call the current emperor by the current era name Heisei even in English would be a faux pas as it is and will be his posthumous name.

In modern practice, the first year of a reign (元年 gannen) starts immediately upon the emperor's ascension to the throne, but always ends on December 31st. Subsequent years follow the Western calendar. Consequently, 1989 is known as both “Showa 64” and “Heisei 1”, although technically Showa 64 ended on January 7th with Hirohito's death.

Historic Era Names

Historically however, prior to the Meiji Restoration, era names were changed on many different occasions such as celebration, major political incidents, natural disasters, and so on, but the emperors posthumous name never took the name of an era. Incidentally, on modern official papers, those who were born prior to the Meiji era did not write the era name in which they born, but wrote Edo period (though now no one born over 130 years ago in that time period is still alive now).

See Also

Chronological List of Nengō (pg 406)

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at (DOUBLE CHECK):

http://www.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Japanese_Era_Names

New Structure Movement

Nichiren

Lived 1222 to 1282

The founder of a sect of Buddhism.

Nichirō-Sensō

See Russo-Japanese War on page XXX.

Niigata City

The capital of Niigata Prefecture.

Niigata Prefecture

Area: 12,582 km2 (1995)

Capital: Niigata

Population: 2,490,000 (1996)

Niijima Jo

Lived 1843 to 1890.

Nijō-tennō

The 78th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 1158 to 1165.

Father of Rokujō-tennō (pg. X).

Nimmyō-tennō

The 54th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 833 to 850.

Nimpei

Nengō: 1151--1153.

aka Nimpyō.

Nine-Powers Treaty

Treaty negotiated by France, Great Britain, Japan, and the United States (and the other four were??) at the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-1922.

The Nine-Powers Treaty confirmed the “Open Door” policy in China.

See Also

Washington Naval Conference (pg 376)

Ninji

Nengō: 1240--1242.

Ninju

Nengō: 851--853.

Ninken-tennō

The 24th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 488 to 498.

Ninkō-tennō

The 120th emperor of Japan.

Lived 21 Feb 1800 to 26 Jan 1846.

Reigned 22 March 1817 to 26 Jan 1846.

Ninna

aka Ninwa.

Nengō: 885--888.

Ninnan

aka Nin'an.

Nengō: 1166--1168.

Ninomiya Sontoku

Lived 1787 to 1856

Nintoku-tennō

The 16th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 313 to 399.

Nishi Amane

Lived 1829 to 1897.

Nishida Kitaro

Lived 1870 to 1945.

Nishida Mitsugu

aka Nishida Zei

aka Nishida Chikara

Lived 1901 to 1937

Nishihara Loans

Nishimura Shigeki

Lived 1828 to 1902.

Nishio Suehiro

Born 1891.

Cabinet Positions Held by Nishio Suehiro

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Katayama

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

01 June 1947

10 Mar 1948

Katayama

State: Without Portfolio

01 June 1947

10 Mar 1948

Ashida

State: Without Portfolio

10 Mar 1948

06 July 1948

Table 88Cabinet Positions Held by Nishio Suehiro

Nisshin-Sensō

See Sino-Japanese War on page XXX.

Nitobe Inazo

Lived 1862 to 1933.

Nitta Family

Daimyō family descended from Minamoto Yoshishige and native to Nitta in Kōzuke Province.

Noda Castle

In Mikawa, originally controlled by the Suganuma family.

The castle was beseiged in 1573 by the forces of Takeda Shingen. It was at that seige that Shingen was mortally wounded by a sniper's bullet.

Noda, Seige of

Took place in 1573.

Takeda Shingen (pg XXX) laid seige to the castle (controlled by ?). Shingen was hit by a sniper's bullet and died (how much?) later. His army withdrew but his death was kept secret for two years.

Noda Uichi

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

3rd Yoshida

Construction



3rd Yoshida

State: Director Administrative Management Agency



??

State: Director Reparations Agency



Table 89Cabinet Positions Held by Noda Uichi

Noda Utarō

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Hara

Communications

29 Sep 1918

13 Nov 1921

Takahashi

Communications

13 Nov 1921

12 June 1922

1st Katō Takaaki

Commerce & Industry

17 Apr 1925

02 Aug 1925

Table 90Cabinet Positions Held by Noda Utarō

Nogi Maresuke

aka Nogi Kiten?

Lived 11 Nov. 1849 to 13 Sept. 1912.

Samurai from Chōshū. Sided with the anti-Bakufu forces and joined the new Imperial Army after the fall of the Tokugawa Bakufu. Fought in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95 and was in charge of the forces that took Port Arthur in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. In between those wars, from 1896 to 1898, Maresuke served as governor-general of Formosa.

He killed himself to follow his lord – the Emperor Meiji – in death. His (Maresuke's) wife also killed herself as an act of loyalty.

Nomonhan

Nomonhan is a small village near the border between Mongolia and Manchuria, China south of the Chinese city of Manzhouli.

In the summer of 1939 it was the location of the Nomonhan Incident, as it is termed in Japan, or the Battle of Khalkhin Gol as it is known in Russia. At this time Manchuria was a client state of Japan, known as Manchukuo. The Japanese maintained that the border between the two states was the Halha River (also known as the Halhin Gol, or in Russian as the Khalkhin Gol), while the Mongolians and their Russian allies maintained that it ran some 16 kilometres/10 miles east of the river, just east of Nomonhan village.

After the battle the Manchukuo-Mongolia Commission established a border, in an agreement signed on October 15, 1941. After the war these maps were used in the war crimes trials of Japan. China later requested the maps claiming it would not accept any border established by negotiation with the Japanese; however, the maps have disappeared and have not been located in either United States or Japanese archives. The official boundary between China and Mongolia was set in treaties in 1962 and 1964.

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nomonhan

Noma Seiji

Lived 1878 to 1938

Nosaka Sanzo

Born 1892.

Noto Peninsula

aka Noto-hanto (hanto being Japanese for 'half-island' and thus, peninsula in English) A peninsula in Ishikawa Prefecture (pg. X) that juts out into the Sea of Japan.

Noto Province

A province in the area that is today Ishikawa Prefecture. Noto bordered on Etchū and Kaga Provinces.

See Also

Etchū Province (pg. X), Ishikawa Prefecture (pg. X), Kaga Province (pg. X), Noto Peninsula (pg. X),

Numa Morikazu

Lived 1844 to 1890.

Nunobeyama, Battle of

Ōan – Ozu Yasujiro

Ōan

Nengō of the Northern Dynasty: 1368--1374.

Obon

see Bon on page XX.

Obuchi Keizō

Prime Minister from 30 July 1998 to 5 April 2000. Replaced by Mori Yoshiro (pg XXX). Died of a stroke while in office, so the date above might be off by a few days.

Ōchō

Nengō: 1311--1311.

Oda Chikazane

Son of Taira Sukemori.

Took the name Oda from the town in Echizen Province.

Oda Family

Daimyō family descended from Taira Sukemori. Oda Chikazane was the first to take the name `Oda'. Originally served the Shiba family and moved with them from Echizen to Owari.

Oda Hidekatsu

Lived 1567 to 1593.

Oda Hidenobu

Lived 1581 to 1602.

Oda Hideo

aka Oda Hidekatsu.

Lived 1573 to 1610.

Oda Katsunaga

Lived 1568 to 1582.

Oda Nagamasu

Lived 1548 to 1622.

Brother of Oda Nobunaga. Converted to Christianity in 1588.

Father of Nagamasa and Toshimasa.

Accomplished practitioner of the tea ceremony, which he studied under the master, Sen no Rikyū. Nagamasa eventually started his own school of the tea ceremony (and its name is?).

Odani, Seige of

Took place in 1573.

Oda Nobunaga took Odani castle from Asai Nagamasa. Nagamasa committed suicide. This was effectively the end of the Asai family.

See Also

Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Asai Nagamasa (pg. X),

Oda Nobuharu

Lived 1549 to 1570.

Oda Nobuhide

Died 1549.

Oda Nobuhiro

Died 1574.

Oda Nobukane

Lived 1548 to 1614.

Oda Nobunaga

Japanese: 織田 信長

Lived 23 June 1534 to 21 June 1582.

Oda Nobunaga was a major daimyo during the Sengoku Period. The son of Oda Nobuhide, a minor warlord with meager land holdings in Owari Province, Nobunaga controlled, directly or through his allies, most of Japan before his assassination in 1582.

Impact

Militarily, Nobunaga's revolutionary dreaming not only changed the way war was fought in Japan, but also in turn made one of the most modernized forces in the world at that time. He developed, implemented, and expanded the use of long pikes, firearms, ironclad ships, and castle fortifications in accordance to the expanded mass battles of the period. Nobunaga also instituted a specialized warrior class system and appointed his retainers and subjects to positions based on ability, not simply on name, rank, or family relationship as previously had been the norm. A famous example of this is Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who was born a peasant and thus did not even have a family name.

Retainers were also given land on basis of rice output, not land size. Nobunaga's organizational system in particular was later used and extensively developed by his ally Tokugawa Ieyasu in the forming of the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo.

Nobunaga's dominance and brilliance was not restricted only to the battlefield for he also was a keen businessman and understood the principles of economics economics. First, in order to modernize the economy from an agricultural base to a manufacture and service base, castle towns were developed as the center and basis of local economies. Roads were also made within his domain between castle towns to facilitate trade and also to move armies great distances quickly. International trade was also expanded.

Nobunaga also instituted rakuichi rakuza policies as a way to stimulate business and the overall economy. These policies abolished and prohibited monopolies and opened once closed and privileged unions, associations, and guilds which he saw as prohibitive to overall commerce. He also developed tax exemptions and established laws to regulate and ease the borrowing of debt.

As Nobunaga conquered Sengoku period Japan and amassed a great amount of wealth, he progressively supported the arts for which he always had an interest, but which he later and gradually more importantly used as a display of his power and presitige. He built extensive gardens and castles which were themselves great works of art. Azuchi castle on the shores of lake Biwa is said to be the greatest castle in the history of Japan, covered with gold and statues on the outside and decorated with standing screen, sliding door, wall, and ceiling paintings made by his subject Kano Eitoku on the inside.

Nobunaga is remembered in Japan as one of the most brutal figures of the Sengoku period. He embraced the Christianity which had infiltrated Japan and used this as the moral basis for his persecution of the Ikko monks. During this time, Nobunaga's subject and tea master Sen no Rikyu established Japanese tea ceremony which Nobunaga popularized and used originally as a way to talk politics and business.

Nobunaga has been made popular through fictionalized references in video games (such as Onimusha) and anime, often villianous with monsterous help or origin as the source of his power.

Biographical Timeline

Young Nobunaga

1534 Born the second (or maybe third) son of Oda Nobuhide however is the first son not born to a concubine so is heir to the Oda clan and domain.

1539? Becomes master of Nagoya castle around the age of 5. Is separated from father and mother who raise his younger brother Oda Nobuyuki at Suemori castle, while Nobunaga is brought up alone by retainer Hirate Masahide.

1547 Nobunaga sees first, however short, military action

1549 Marries daughter of Saito Dosan, daimyo of Mino province (Gifu prefecture). It is a political marriage set up by his father and Hirate Masahide.

Unification of Owari Province

1551 Father Nobuhide dies and Nobunaga inherits domain. Becomes engaged in struggle with younger brother Nobuyuki for succession of the Oda clan and with others for total control of Owari province.

1552 Battle of Kaizu. Nobunaga defeats the rebelling Oda Nobutomo.

1553 Retainer Hirate Masahide commits seppuku out of shame for Nobunaga. Nobunaga meets father-in-law Saito Dousan for the first time.

1555 Battle of Ino. Defeats younger brother Nobuyuki and Shibata Katsuie to become undisputed head of the Oda clan.

1556 Father-in-law Saito Dousan killed in coup in Mino province.

1557 Nobuyuki again plans to overthrow Nobunaga. Nobunaga informed of the plot by Shibata Katsuie and in turn forces Nobuyuki to commit seppuku.

1558 Battle of Ukino. Defeats the Oda Nobukata, last of the rebelling relatives in Owari province.

1559 Nobunaga goes to Kyoto to announce his unification of Owari province to the 13th Muromachi shogun Ashikaga Yoshiteru.

First major campaign

1560 Battle of Okehazama. Defeats invading daimyo Imagawa Yoshimoto, ruler of the Mikawa (eastern Aichi prefecture), Suruga (western Shizuoka prefecture), and Totomi (eastern Shizuoka) provinces.

1562 Forms "Kiyosu alliance" with Matsudaira Motoyasu (later Tokugawa Ieyasu), new daimyo of Mikawa province.

Tenka Fubu

1567 Nobunaga invades and conquers Mino province. Starts to have ambitions of conquering all of Japan, calling it Tenka Fubu, "Conquer through military force".

1568 Oda Nobunaga marches his armies into Kyoto at the request of 14th Ashikaga shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaki. With Kyoto conquered and Ashikaga Yoshiaki installed as a puppet shogun, the Azuchi-Momoyama period of Japanese history officially begins (overlaps with Muromachi period until 1573).

1570 Battle of Ane river (Battle of Anegawa). Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu defeat the combined forces of daimyos Asakura Yoshikage and Azai Nagamasa.

1571 Attacks and razes the Tendai warrior monk complex Enryakuji on Mt. Hiei near Kyoto.

1573 Invades and conquers Echizen and Wakasa provinces. Nobunaga drives last Muromachi shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaki out of Kyoto. The Muromachi shogunate ends.

Invasion of Chugoku (Western Honshu)

1575 Battle of Nagashino. Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu defeat Takeda Katsuyori. First invasion of Tamba by general Akechi Mitsuhide.

1579 Akechi Mitsuhide invades Tanba for the 3rd time and finally conquers it. Settsu province also invaded and conquered. Mimasaka and Bizen provinces "given" to Nobunaga.

1580 Miki Castle falls after 2 year siege by Nobunaga's general Hashiba Hideyoshi. Invades and conquers Tajima. Inaba province invaded.

1581 Hashiba Hideyoshi lays siege to Tottori castle. Inaba province conquered.

1582 Hashiba Hideyoshi invades Bitchu province. Takeda clan falls under the forces of Nobunaga; Shinano, Kai, and Suruga provinces conquered. Nobunaga falls in coup (Honnoji no Hen) by retainer Akechi Mitsuhide at Honnoji Temple, Kyoto.

See Also

Suggested Reading

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oda_Nobunaga

Oda Nobuo

Lived 1558 to 1630.

Oda Nobutada

Lived 1557 to 1582.

Oda Nobutaka

Lived 1558 to 1583

Oda Nobuyuki

Died 1557.

Oda Nobuzumi

Lived 1555 to 1583.

Ōei

Nengō: 1394--1427.

Ogasawara Nagatada

Ogata Kōan

Lived 1810 to 1863.

Ogata Taketora

Lived 1888 to 1956.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Koiso

State

22 July 1944

07 Apr 1945

Higashikuni

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

17 Aug 1945

09 Oct 1945

Higashikuni

State

17 Aug 1945

09 Oct 1945

Table 91Cabinet Positions Held by Ogata Taketora

Oga Yashiro

A traitor who offered to let Takeda Katsuyori into the Tokugawa-controlled castle at Okazaki.

Ōgimachi-tennō

The 106th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 1557 to 1586.

Ogyū Sorai

Lived 16 Feb. 1666 to 19 Jan. 1728.

A Confucianist of the kogaku school.

Ohara Magosaburō

Lived 28 July 1880 to 18 Jan. 1943.

Native of Okayama.

A businessman and philanthropist.

Ohara Naoshi

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Okada

Justice

08 July 1934

09 Mar 1936

Abe

Home Affairs

30 Aug 1939

16 Jan 1940

Abe

Welfare

30 Aug 1939

29 Nov 1939

Table 92Cabinet Positions Held by Ohara Naoshi

Ōhiko

A son of Kōgen-tennō (pg 184).

Ōhira Masayoshi

Lived 1910 to 1980.

Prime Minister from 7 December 1978 to 9 November 1979 and 9 November 1979 to 18 July 1980.

Ōhō

Nengō: 1161--1162.

Oi Kentaro

Lived 1843 to 1922.

Oishi Yoshi

aka Oishi Kuranosuke.

Lived 1659 to 1703.

Ōita City

The capital city of Ōita Prefecture.

Ōita Prefecture

Area: 6,337 km2 (1995)

Capital: Ōita

Population: 1,240,000 (1996)

Ōjin-tennō

The 15th emperor of Japan.

Reigned 270 to 310.

Okabe Naganori

Okada Keisuke

Lived 21 Jan 1868 to 17 Oct 1952

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Tanaka G.

Navy

20 Apr 1927

02 July 1929

Saitō

Navy

26 May 1932

Jan 09 1933

Okada

Colonization

08 July 1934

25 Oct 1934

Okada

Prime Minister

08 July 1934

09 Mar 1936

Okada

Communications

Sep 09 1935

12 Sep 1935

Table 93Cabinet Positions Held by Okada Keisuke

Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Okada Keisuke

Prime Minister

8 July 1934

9 Mar 1936

Yamazaki Tatsunosuke

Agriculture and Forestry

8 July 1934

9 Mar 1936

Kawada Isao

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

8 July 1934

20 Oct 1934

Yoshida Shigeru

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

20 Oct 1934

11 May 1935

Shirane Takesuke

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

11 May 1935

9 Mar 1936

Kanamori Tokujirō

Chief of Legislative Bureau

8 July 1934

11 Jan 1936

Ōhashi Hachirō

Chief of Legislative Bureau

11 Jan 1936

9 Mar 1936

Okada Keisuke

Colonization

8 July 1934

25 Oct 1934

Kodama Hideo

Colonization

25 Oct 1934

9 Mar 1936

Machida Chūji

Commerce and Industry

8 July 1934

9 Mar 1936

Tokonami Takejirō

Communications

8 July 1934

8 Sep 1935

Okada Keisuke

Communications

9 Sep 1935

12 Sep 1935

Mochizuke Keisuke

Communications

12 Sep 1935

9 Mar 1936

Matsuda Genji

Education

8 July 1934

1 Feb 1936

Kawasaki Takukichi

Education

2 Feb 1936

9 Mar 1936

Fujii Sanenobu

Finance

8 July 1934

26 Nov 1934

Machida Chūji

Finance

27 Feb 1936

9 Mar 1936

Takahashi Korekiyo

Finance

27 Nov 1934

26 Feb 1936

Hirota Kōki

Foreign Affairs

8 July 1934

9 Mar 1936

Gotō Fumio

Home Affairs

8 July 1934

9 Mar 1936

Ohara Naoshi

Justice

8 July 1934

9 Mar 1936

Ōsumi Mineo

Navy

8 July 1934

9 Mar 1936

Uchida Kōsai

Railways

8 July 1934

9 Mar 1936

Hayashi Senjūrō

War

8 July 1934

5 Sep 1935

Kawashima Yoshiyuki

War

5 Sep 1935

9 Mar 1936

Table 94Okada Keisuke's Cabinet

Okada Ryōhei

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Terauchi

Education

09 Oct 1916

29 Sep 1918

1st Katō Takaaki

Education

11 June 1924

02 Aug 1925

2nd Katō Takaaki

Education

02 Aug 1925

30 Jan 1926

1st Wakatsuki

Education

30 Jan 1926

20 Apr 1927

Table 95Cabinet Positions Held by Okada Ryōhei

Okakura Tenshin

aka Okakura Kakuzo

Lived 1862 to 1913

Okano Keijirō

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Saionji

Chief of Legislative Bureau

07 Jan 1906

14 July 1908

2nd Saionji

Chief of Legislative Bureau

30 Aug 1911

21 Dec 1912

1st Yamamoto

Chief of Legislative Bureau

20 Feb 1913

20 Sep 1913

Katō Tomosaburō

Justice

12 June 1922

02 Sep 1923

2nd Yamamoto

Education

Sep 06 1923

07 Jan 1924

2nd Yamamoto

Agriculture & Commerce

24 Dec 1923

07 Jan 1924

Table 96Cabinet Positions Held by Okano Keijirō

Okawa Shumei

Lived 1886 to 1957.

Okayama City

The capital of Okayama Prefecture.

Okayama Prefecture

Area: 7,111 km2 (1995)

Capital: Okayama

Population: 1,950,000 (1996)



Okazaki Castle

In Mikawa. Built in the 1400s. Tokugawa Ieyasu was born there in 1542.

Okehazama, Battle of

Took place in 1560.

Oda Nobunaga defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto. Nobunaga launched a surprise attack on Yoshimoto. Thanks in part to a sudden rainstorm, the attack was a complete success. Yoshimoto and many of his top officers were killed.

See Also

Oda Nobunaga (pg. X), Imagawa Yoshimoto (pg. X),

Ōki Enkichi

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

Hara

Justice

15 May 1920

13 Nov 1921

Takahashi

Justice

13 Nov 1921

12 June 1922

Katō Tomosaburō

Railways

12 June 1922

02 Sep 1923

Table 97Cabinet Positions Held by Ōki Enkichi

Okinawa, Battle of

Okinawa Prefecture

Area: 2,266 km2 (1995)

Capital: Naha

Population: 1,290,000 (1996)

Okinawa consists of more than 50 islands of the Ryūkū chain. The islands were a semi-independent kingdom for much of their recorded history and officially became a part of Japan only in 1920.

The islands are strategically located off the southwest of the main island of Kyūshū.

The island of Okinawa (the main island of the prefecture) was the scene of an important battle in World War Two.

Okinawate, Battle of

Oki Province

A group of islands off the coast of Izumo and Hōki Provinces (today Shimane and Tottori Prefectures). Today the islands are part of Shimane Prefecture.

See Also

Hōki Province (pg. X), Izumo Province (pg. X), Shimane Prefecture (pg. X), Tottori Prefecture (pg. X),

Ōki Takatō

Lived 1832 to 1899.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Yamagata

Hanretsu

24 Dec 1889

06 May 1891

1st Yamagata

Justice

25 Dec 1890

07 Feb 1891

1st Matsukata

Education

01 June 1891

08 Aug 1892

Table 98Cabinet Positions Held by Ōki Takatō

Ōkōchi Castle

Okubo Toshimichi

Lived 1830 to 1878.

Okudaira Family

From Mikawa. Descended from the Murakami branch of the Minamoto family.

Okudaira Sadamasa

Lived 1555--1615.

The Okudaira family were originally retainers of the Tokugawa, but were forced to join Takeda Shingen. After Shingen died and Katsuyori assumed leadership of the Takeda clan, Okudaira Sadamasa walked his men right out of Tsukude castle and rejoined the Tokugawa. Katsuyori had Sadamasa's wife and brother --- hostages to the Takeda --- crucified for this.

Ieyasu accepted Sadamasa back and entrusted him with the defense of Nagashino castle.

See Also

Nagashino, Battle of (pg. X), Nagashino Castle (pg. X), Okudaira Family (pg. X), Takeda Family (pg. X), Takeda Katsuyori (pg. X), Takeda Shingen (pg. X), Tokugawa Family (pg. X), Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg. X),

Okuda Yoshindo

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

4th Itō

Chief of Legislative Bureau

19 Oct 1900

02 June 1901

1st Katsura

Chief of Legislative Bureau

02 June 1901

26 Sep 1902

1st Yamamoto

Education

20 Feb 1913

06 Mar 1914

1st Yamamoto

Justice

11 Nov 1913

16 Apr 1914

Table 99Cabinet Positions Held by Okuda Yoshindo

Okuma Kihachiro

Lived 1837 to 1928

Ōkuma Shigenobu

Lived 16 Feb 1838 to 10 Jan 1922.

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Itō

Foreign Affairs

1 Feb 1888

30 Apr 1888

Kuroda

Foreign Affairs

30 Apr 1888

24 Dec 1889

2nd Matsukata

Foreign Affairs

22 Sep 1896

6 Nov 1897

2nd Matsukata

Agriculture & Commerce

29 Mar 1897

6 Nov 1897

1st Ōkuma

Prime Minister

30 June 1898

8 Nov 1898

1st Ōkuma

Foreign Affairs

30 June 1898

8 Nov 1898

2nd Ōkuma

Home Affairs

16 April 1914

7 Jan 1915

2nd Ōkuma

Prime Minister

16 April 1914

9 Oct 1916

2nd Ōkuma

Home Affairs

30 July 1915

10 Aug 1915

2nd Ōkuma

Foreign Affairs

10 Aug 1915

13 Oct 1915

Table 100Cabinet Positions Held by Ōkuma Shigenobu

First Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Ōkuma Shigenobu

Prime Minister

30 June 1898

8 Nov 1898

Ōishi Masami

Agriculture & Commerce

30 June 1898

8 Nov 1898

Taketomi Tokitoshi

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

30 June 1898

8 Nov 1898

Kōmuchi Tomotsune

Chief of Legislative Bureau

30 June 1898

8 Nov 1898

Hayashi Yūzō

Communications

30 June 1898

8 Nov 1898

Ozaki Yukio

Education

30 June 1898

27 Oct 1898

Matsuda Masahisa

Finance

30 June 1898

8 Nov 1898

Ōkuma Shigenobu

Foreign Affairs

30 June 1898

8 Nov 1898

Itagaki Taisuke

Home Affairs

30 June 1898

8 Nov 1898

Daitō Gitetsu

Justice

30 June 1898

8 Nov 1898

Saigō Tsugumichi

Navy

30 June 1898

8 Nov 1898

Katsura Tarō

War

30 June 1898

8 Nov 1898

Table 101Ōkuma Shigenobu's First Cabinet

Ōkuma Shigenobu's Second Cabinet

Name

Position

From

To

Ōkuma Shigenobu

Prime Minister

16 April 1914

9 Oct 1916

Ōura Kanetake

Agriculture & Commerce

16 April 1914

7 Jan 1915

Oka Ichinosuke

Army

16 April 1914

30 Mar 1916

Egi Tasuku

Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

16 April 1914

9 Oct 1916

Takahashi Sakue

Chief of Legislative Bureau

16 April 1914

9 Oct 1916

Taketomi Tokitoshi

Communications

16 April 1914

10 Aug 1915

Ichiki Kitokurō

Education

16 April 1914

10 Aug 1915

Wakatsuki Reijirō

Finance

16 April 1914

10 Aug 1915

Katō Takaaki

Foreign Affairs

16 April 1914

10 Aug 1915

Ōkuma Shigenobu

Home Affairs

16 April 1914

7 Jan 1915

Ozaki Yukio

Justice

16 April 1914

9 Oct 1916

Yasuhiro Rokurō

Navy

16 April 1914

10 Aug 1915

Table 102Ōkuma Shigenobu's Second Cabinet

Ōmi Province

A province in the area that is today Shiga Prefecture. Ōmi bordered on Echizen, Ise, Mino, Tamba (just barely), Wakasa, and Yamashiro Provinces.

Domains

Ōtsu (60,000 koku): Kyōgoku Takatsugu received from Toyotomi

Hideyoshi (what year?).

See Also

Echizen Province (pg. X), Ise Province (pg. X), Kyōgoku Takatsugu (pg. X), Mino Province (pg. X), Shiga Prefecture (pg. X), Tamba Province (pg. X), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (pg. X), Wakasa Province (pg. X), Yamashiro Province (pg. X),

Omote-kōke

Omura Masajiro

Lived 1824 to 1869.

Ōnin

Nengō: 1467--1468.

Ōnin War

Ōnin no ran in Japanese.

Ono Azusa

Lived 1852 to 1886.

Onogawa

A river in Bungo Province.

Ōsaka Castle

Japanese: 大坂城 (Ōsaka-jō)

Ōsaka Castle is a located in Chuo-ku, Ōsaka. Originally called Ozakajo, it is one of Japan's most famous castles, and played a major role in the unification of Japan during the 1500's.

The castle is situated on a plot of land roughly one kilometer square. It is built on two raised platforms of landfill supported by sheer walls of cut rock, each overlooking a moat. The central castle building is five stories on the outside and eight stories on the inside, and built atop a tall stone foundation to protect its occupants from sword-bearing attackers.

History

1583: Toyotomi Hideyoshi commenced construction on the site of the Ikko Ikki temple of Honganji. The basic plan was modeled after Azuchi Castle, the headquarters of Oda Nobunaga. Toyotomi wanted to build a castle that mirrored Oda's, but surpassed it in every way: the plan featured a five-story main tower, with three extra stories underground, and gold leaf on the sides of the tower to impress visitors.

1585: Inner donjon completed. Toyotomi continued to extend and expand the castle, making it more and more formidable to attackers.

1598: Construction completed. Hideyoshi died. Osaka Castle passed to his son, Toyotomi Hideyori.

1603: Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated Hideyori's armies at the Battle of Sekigahara, and started his own bakufu in Edo.

1614: Tokugawa attacked Hideyori in the winter. Although the Toyotomi forces were outnumbered 2 to 1, they managed to fight off Tokugawa's 200,000-man army and protect the castle's outer walls. However, Tokugawa attempted to muzzle Toyotomi by filling up the castle's outer moat, rendering it largely defenseless.

1615: During the summer, Hideyori began to dig the outer moat once more. Tokugawa, in outrage, sent his armies to Osaka Castle again, and routed the Toyotomi men inside the outer walls on June 4. Osakajo fell to Tokugawa, and the Toyotomi clan perished.

1620: The new heir to the shogunate, Tokugawa Hidetada, began to reconstruct and rearm Osaka Castle. He built a new elevated main tower, five stories on the outside and eight stories on the inside, and assigned the task of constructing new walls to individual samurai clans. The walls built in the 1620's still stand today, and are made out of interlocked granite boulders with no mortar whatsoever: they are held together solely by each other. Many of the stones were brought from rock quarries in the Seto Inland Sea, and bear inscribed crests of the various families who laid them into the walls.

1665: Lightning strikes burned down the main tower.

1843: After decades of neglect, the castle got much-needed repairs when the bakufu collected money from the people of the region to rebuild several of the turrets.

1868: Much of the castle was burned in the civil conflicts surrounding the Meiji Restoration. Under the Meiji government, Osaka Castle was converted to a barracks for Japan's rapidly-expanding Western-style military.

1928: The main tower was restored after the mayor of Osaka concluded a highly successful fund-raising drive.

1945: Bombing raids on Osaka damaged the reconstructed main tower.

1995: Osaka's government approved yet another restoration project, with the intent of restoring the main tower to its Edo-era splendor.

1997: Restoration was completed.

Today

The castle is open to the public, and is easily accessible from Osakajo Koen Station on the JR Osaka Loop Line. It is a popular spot during festival seasons, and especially during the cherry blossom viewing season, when the sprawling castle grounds are covered with food vendors and taiko drummers.

The grounds also house a museum, a convention hall, and the Toyokuni Shrine dedicated to Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

See Also

Suggested Reading

Modified from the Wikipedia article available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osaka_Castle

Ōsaka City

The capital of Ōsaka Prefecture.

Ōsaka Prefecture

A fu and not a ken.

Area: 1,892 km2 (1995)

Capital: Ōsaka

Population: 8,590,000 (1996)

Ōsaka, Seige of

Lasted 1614-1615.

Toyotomi Hideyori was in Ōsaka Castle with 113,000 men. Outside, the Tokugawa army numbered about 194,000 men. They fought several battles, starting with one in 1614 at the mouth of the Kizugawa, and ending when Hideyori's forces attacked those of the Tokugawa at the Battle of Tennōji, in 1615.

See Also

Toyotomi Hideyori (pg. X), Ōsaka Castle (pg. X), Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg. X), Kizugawa, Battle of (pg. X), Tennōji, Battle of (pg. X)

Ōsawa Family

Ōsugi Sakae

Lived 1885 to 1923.

Anarchist. Killed after the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923.

Had a relationship with Itō Noe.

See Also

Anarchism (pg. 24)

Great Kanto Earthquake (pg. 116), Itō Noe (pg. 152),

Ōsumi Province

A province in the area that is today Kagoshima Prefecture. Ōsumi bordered on Hyūga and Satsuma Provinces.

See Also

Hyūga Province (pg. X), Kagoshima Prefecture (pg. X), Satsuma Province (pg. X)

Ōtoku

Nengō: 1084--1086.

Ōtomo Family

Ōtsu City

The capital of Shiga Prefecture (pg XX).

Ōtsu, Seige of

Took place in 1600.

Kyōgoku Takatsugu defended Ōtsu castle for the Tokugawa. Tachibana Muneshige and Tsukushi Hirokado laid seige. The sides negotiated and Takatsugu surrendered. However, in the meantime Tokugawa Ieyasu had won the Battle of Sekigahara and the loss of Ōtsu was insignificant.

See Also

Kyōgoku Takatsugu (pg. X), Tachibana Muneshige (pg. X), Tsukushi Hirokado (pg. X), Tokugawa Ieyasu (pg. X),

Ōuchi Yoshitaka

Ōura Kanetake

Lived

Cabinet Positions

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Katsura

Communications

22 Sep 1903

07 Jan 1906

2nd Katsura

Agriculture & Commerce

14 July 1908

26 Mar 1910

2nd Katsura

Agriculture & Commerce

03 Sep 1910

30 Aug 1911

3rd Katsura

Home Affairs

21 Dec 1912

20 Feb 1913

2nd Ōkuma

Agriculture & Commerce

16 Apr 1914

07 Jan 1915

2nd Ōkuma

Home Affairs

07 Jan 1915

30 July 1915

Table 103Cabinet Positions Held by Ōura Kanetake

Owari Province

A province in the area that is today Aichi Prefecture. Owari bordered on Ise, Mikawa, and Mino Provinces.

See Also

Aichi Prefecture (pg. X), Ise Province (pg. X), Mikawa Province (pg. X), Mino Province (pg. X),

Ōwa

Nengō: 961--963.

Oyama Ikuo

Lived 1880 to 1955.

Ōyama Iwao

Lived 1842 to 1916

Cabinet Positions Held by Ōyama Iwao

Cabinet

Position

From

To

1st Itō

War

22 Dec 1885

30 Apr 1888

1st Itō

Navy

July 10 1886

July 01 1887

Kurota

War

30 Apr 1888

24 Dec 1889

Kurota

Education

Feb 16 1889

22 Mar 1889

1st Yamagata

War

24 Dec 1889

06 May 1891

1st Matsukata

War

06 May 1891

17 May 1891

2nd Itō

War

08 Aug 1892

09 Oct 1894

2nd Itō

War

26 May 1895

18 Sep 1896

2nd Matsukata

War

18 Sep 1896

20 Sep 1895

Table 104Cabinet Positions Held by Ōyama Iwao

Oyama-jinja

A shrine in Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture. It is famous for its Dutch stained-glass window, which dates back several hundred years.

See Also

Kanazawa City (pg. X), Ishikawa Prefecture (pg. X),

Oyatoi Gaikokujin

Japanese: お雇い外国人

Foreign engineers, teachers, and other specialists hired to assist in the modernization of Japan. The term is often used to refer to those foreign specialists employed by the Japanese government. The first were hired during the Bakumatsu period and many more came during the early Meiji period. The goal was to transfer technical know-how to Japanese students and also teach their own Japanese replacements.

They were highly paid; in 1874 the oyatoi numbered 520, during which time their salaries came to 2.272 million yen, or 33.7 percent of the annual budget. Despite their value, they were not allowed to stay in Japan permanently, and many, finding the nation unwelcoming, chose to leave at the end of a one or two year contact. The oyatoi system was terminated in 1899, during which time over 800 hired experts were employed by the government, and many others privately.

The situation around the JET Program is similar in many ways to that of the oyatoi system - young people brought to Japan for a short time to transfer some of their knowledge and paid a handsome wage.

Notable Oyatoi Gaikokujin



Name

Specialty

From

To

Notes

William Griffis


1870

1874

American clergymen, author

Heinrich Edmund Naumann

geologist

August 1875


Arrived at the age of 21. Teaching in the University of Tokyo, he became the first professor of geology in Japan. His achievements include, among others, the first tectonic map of the country.

Thomas Corwin Mendenhall

physicist.



American

Edward S. Morse